Parietal Lobe

Publication Title: 
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

Attempts to correlate measures of intellectual ability with localized anatomical imaging features of the brain have yielded variable findings distributed across frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. To better define the gray and white matter correlates of intellectual ability and the effects of sex and age, we analyzed the brains of 105 healthy individuals, ages 7-57 years, who had a Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) of 70 or higher. We examined associations of FSIQ with cortical thickness and with white matter volume throughout the cerebrum.

Author(s): 
Goh, Suzanne
Bansal, Ravi
Xu, Dongrong
Hao, Xuejun
Liu, Jun
Peterson, Bradley S.
Publication Title: 
Translational Psychiatry

Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic dysfunction may account for the alteration of gene transcription present in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BP) and autism.

Author(s): 
Dong, E.
Gavin, D. P.
Chen, Y.
Davis, J.
Publication Title: 
Biological Psychology

In event-related potential (ERPs) studies, emotional stimuli usually elicit an enhanced late positive potential (LPP), which is assumed to reflect motivated attention. However, whether a stimulus elicits emotional responses may depend on the individual's state, such as experiencing romantic love. It has been suggested that stimuli that are related to someone's beloved will elicit increased attention in that infatuated individual. In this study, participants who were in love viewed faces of their beloved, their friend, and of an unknown, beautiful person.

Author(s): 
Langeslag, Sandra J. E.
Jansma, Bernadette M.
Franken, Ingmar H. A.
Van Strien, Jan W.
Publication Title: 
Social Neuroscience

Neuroscience research suggests that inferring neutral intentions of other people recruits a specific brain network within the inferior fronto-parietal action observation network as well as a putative social network including brain areas subserving theory of mind, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), and also the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC).

Author(s): 
Wang, Yiwen
Huang, Liang
Zhang, Wei
Zhang, Zhen
Cacioppo, Stephanie
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Most people are generous, but not toward everyone alike: generosity usually declines with social distance between individuals, a phenomenon called social discounting. Despite the pervasiveness of social discounting, social distance between actors has been surprisingly neglected in economic theory and neuroscientific research. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural basis of this process to understand the neural underpinnings of social decision making.

Author(s): 
Strombach, Tina
Weber, Bernd
Hangebrauk, Zsofia
Kenning, Peter
Karipidis, Iliana I.
Tobler, Philippe N.
Kalenscher, Tobias
Publication Title: 
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

Learning about other peoples' attributes, e.g. whether an individual is generous or selfish, is central to human social cognition. It is well documented that a network of cortical regions is reliably activated when we engage social processes. However, little is known about the specific computations performed by these regions or whether such processing is specialized for the social domain. We investigated these questions using a task in which participants (N= 26) learned about four peoples' generosity by watching them choose to share money with third party partners, or not.

Author(s): 
Stanley, Damian A.
Publication Title: 
Neuron

Human altruism shaped our evolutionary history and pervades social and political life. There are, however, enormous individual differences in altruism. Some people are almost completely selfish, while others display strong altruism, and the factors behind this heterogeneity are only poorly understood.

Author(s): 
Morishima, Yosuke
Schunk, Daniel
Bruhin, Adrian
Ruff, Christian C.
Fehr, Ernst
Publication Title: 
Psychological Science

Compassion is a key motivator of altruistic behavior, but little is known about individuals' capacity to cultivate compassion through training. We examined whether compassion may be systematically trained by testing whether (a) short-term compassion training increases altruistic behavior and (b) individual differences in altruism are associated with training-induced changes in neural responses to suffering. In healthy adults, we found that compassion training increased altruistic redistribution of funds to a victim encountered outside of the training context.

Author(s): 
Weng, Helen Y.
Fox, Andrew S.
Shackman, Alexander J.
Stodola, Diane E.
Caldwell, Jessica Z. K.
Olson, Matthew C.
Rogers, Gregory M.
Davidson, Richard J.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition.

Author(s): 
Watanabe, Takamitsu
Takezawa, Masanori
Nakawake, Yo
Kunimatsu, Akira
Yamasue, Hidenori
Nakamura, Mitsuhiro
Miyashita, Yasushi
Masuda, Naoki
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Author(s): 
Clynes, M.
Kohn, M.
Lifshitz, K.

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