BACKGROUND: Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, "Attarin" drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory).
AIM: To investigate the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2), Peganum harmala extract (PHE) and caloric restriction (CR) on various testis parameters during aging. METHODS: Twelve month-old male rats were treated for 6 months with either E2 or PHE, or submitted to CR (40%). RESULTS: Our results show that estrogens and CR are able to protect the male gonad by preventing the decrease of testosterone and E2 levels as well as the decrease of aromatase and estrogen receptor gene expressions.