BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a serious and complex central nervous system disorder associated with recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures due to the imbalance between excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) neurotransmitters level in the brain. The available treatments are neither competent to control the seizures nor prevent progress of disease. Since ages, Herbal medicines have remained important sources of medicines in many parts of world which is evidenced through their uses in traditional systems of medicine i.e. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy and Chinese etc.
Methyldopa potentiated hypnosis due to hexobarbitone in mice, as did reserpine, chlorpromazine and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Methyldopa antagonized the increase by reserpine of sleep due to hexobarbitone, but enhanced the potentiation by chlorpromazine and 5-hydroxytryptamine of hypnosis due to hexobarbitone. The sedative effect of reserpine in mice and the emetic effect in pigeons were also antagonized by methyldopa. However, the effects of reserpine on convulsions due to leptazol and in causing ptosis were not antagonized by methyldopa.
A series of newly synthesized N-phenyl-substituted derivatives of succinimide were screened for anticonvulsant activity. Addition of a sulfonamide group in the p-position was of great consequence for the anticonvulsant effect. Substitution of a halogen in the m- or o-position improved activity against electroshock induced seizures. Pentylenetetrazole convulsions could only be prevented by few of these substances in smaller than 200 mg/kg oral doses. Activity could be further enhanced by adding more aliphatic or aromatic groups to the succinimide ring.
Midazolam is a water-soluble benzodiazepine proven to be efficacious in sedation, hypnosis, and induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Because of its water solubility, it is a desirable drug for the control of status epilepticus when intravenous (IV) access is not obtainable. This study compares intramuscular (IM) versus IV routes of administration of midazolam in the control of tonic-clonic activity produced by chemically induced generalized seizures in a swine model.
The effects of essential oil of Croton zehntneri (Euphorbiaceae), orally administered were studied on behavioral parameters using rats and mice. The oil suspension did not modify pentobarbital induced-hypnosis, stereotypic behavior, catalepsy and amphetamine-induced hypermotility. The open-field behaviors were decreased and the minimal convulsant dose of pentylenetetrazole was increased.
Cypermethrin a widely used insecticide of Pyrethroids (type II) group, was administered in mice at two dose levels (1/10 of LD50 i.e. 2.5 mg/kg and 1/5 of LD50 i.e. 5.0 mg/kg) and pharmacodynamic interactions of insecticide were studied with centrally acting drugs viz. pentobarbital sodium, amphetamine, pentylenetetrazole, acepromazine and analgin. Cypermethrin pretreatment potentiated the actions of pentobarbital and pentylene-tetrazole as evidenced by an increase in pentobarbital induced hypnosis and duration of pentylene-tetrazole induced chemoshock seizures.
Rubus brasiliensis hexanic fraction induced anxiolysis in rodents, which was reversed by flumazenil, a specific GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor antagonist (Nogueira et al., 1998a,b). Then, we investigated if this hexanic fraction was able to induce hypnotic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effects, and the involvement of GABA(A)-system. The hexanic fraction (50, 100, 150 and 300 mg/kg, vo) was administered to male Swiss mice, 30 min before the tests.
Oxydemeton-methyl, an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide produced decrease in the exploratory behaviour and prolongation of barbitone sodium-induced hypnosis after intermittent aerosol spray inhalational exposure for 1 h in rats compared to the saline control group. Further, CD50 +/- S.E.M. value for pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and CI50 +/- S.E.M. value for electroshock (i.e. the dose of PTZ and intensity of electroshock producing positive seizure response in 50% of rats) were significantly decreased by acute exposure to oxydemeton-methyl compared to that of saline control group.
Oxydemeton-methyl, an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide produced decrease in the exploratory behaviour and prolongation of barbitone sodium induced hypnosis in rats after intermittent aerosol spray inhalational exposure, for 1/2 hour daily for 7 consecutive days, compared to the saline control group. Further, ED50 +/- SEM value for haloperidol induced catalepsy, CD50 +/- SEM value for pentylenetetrazole induced seizure and CI50 +/- SEM value for electroshock (i.e.