Biochemistry and Cell Biology = Biochimie Et Biologie Cellulaire
My desire as a young endocrinologist to improve my clinical skills through a better knowledge of hormone chemistry led me to serendipitous discoveries and unexpected horizons. The first discovery, published in 1967, revealed that peptide hormones are derived from endoproteolytic cleavages of larger precursor polypeptides. It was the foundation of the prohormone theory.
Many hormonal signals from peripheral tissues contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake. These regulators including leptin, insulin, and ghrelin, modulate the orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide expression in hypothalamic nuclei. The anti-aging effects of caloric restriction have been explained from an evolutional viewpoint of the adaptive response of the neuroendocrine and metabolic response systems to maximize survival during periods of food shortage.
Love is one of the most desired experiences. The quest for understanding human bonds, especially love, was traditionally a domain of the humanities. Recent developments in biological sciences yield new insights into the mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of human relationships. Animal models of reproductive behaviors, mother-infant attachment and pair bonding complemented by human studies reveal neuroendocrine foundations of prosocial behaviors and emotions.
OBJECTIVE: One of the multiple health benefits of soy protein or its isoflavones may be their purported favorable effect on body composition. We examined the effect of isoflavones extracted from soy protein on overall and regional body composition, taking into account appetitive hormones as potential mediators, as well as the direct effect on appetitive hormones.
Chronic stress is associated with negative health outcomes and is linked with neuroendocrine changes, deleterious effects on innate and adaptive immunity, and central nervous system neuropathology. Although stress management is commonly advocated clinically, there is insufficient mechanistic understanding of how decreasing stress affects disease pathogenesis. Therefore, we have developed a "calm mouse model" with caging enhancements designed to reduce murine stress.
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ghrelin is a gastric hormone increased during caloric restriction and fat depletion. A role of ghrelin in the regulation of lipid and energy metabolism is suggested by fat gain independent of changes in food intake during exogenous ghrelin administration in rodents. We investigated the potential effects of peripheral ghrelin administration (two times daily 200-micrograms [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] sc injection for 4 days) on triglyceride content and mitochondrial and lipid metabolism gene expression in rat liver and muscles.
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes resolves in 80% of individuals undergoing successful Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Absolute caloric restriction alone resulting from gastric anatomic changes indeed leads to weight loss; however, immediate effects in glycemic control often precede substantial weight loss typically associated with insulin sensitivity. One putative explanation relates to hormonal effects accompanying Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We reviewed the existing and recent literature to investigate the hormonal changes accompanying Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.