BACKGROUND: Breast engorgement is a painful and unpleasant condition affecting large numbers of women in the early postpartum period. During a time when mothers are coping with the demands of a new baby it may be particularly distressing. Breast engorgement may inhibit the development of successful breastfeeding, lead to early breastfeeding cessation, and is associated with more serious illness, including breast infection. OBJECTIVES: To identify the best forms of treatment for women who experience breast engorgement.
BACKGROUND: Breast engorgement is a painful condition affecting large numbers of women in the early postpartum period. It may lead to premature weaning, cracked nipples, mastitis and breast abscess. Various forms of treatment for engorgement have been studied but so far little evidence has been found on an effective intervention. OBJECTIVES: This is an update of a systematic review first published by Snowden et al. in 2001 and subsequently published in 2010. The objective of this update is to seek new information on the best forms of treatment for breast engorgement in lactating women.
BACKGROUND: The fruit of the Terminalia chebula tree has been widely used for the treatment of various disorders. Its anti-diabetic, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral effects have been studied. Dental plaque bacteria (DPB) are intimately associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. In the quest for materials that will prove useful in the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease, we investigated the preventive effects of an ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula (EETC) on DPB-induced inflammation and bone resorption.
The possibility is discussed that dietary restriction modulates ageing and onset of related pathologies by, in addition to upregulation of proteolysis, suppression of glycolysis which in turn decreases generation of methylglyoxal (MG), a highly toxic glycating agent which can provoke cellular senescence and many age-related pathologies. This proposal is supported by the observation that intermittent feeding can mimic dietary restriction's effects on mouse lifespan without any overall reduction in calorie intake.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is auxotrophic for most amino acids. Its amino acid needs are met largely through the degradation of host erythrocyte hemoglobin; however the parasite must acquire isoleucine exogenously, because this amino acid is not present in adult human hemoglobin. We report that when isoleucine is withdrawn from the culture medium of intraerythrocytic P. falciparum, the parasite slows its metabolism and progresses through its developmental cycle at a reduced rate.
Ubiquitinated endosomal proteins that are deposited into the lumens of multivesicular bodies are either sorted for lysosomal-mediated degradation or secreted as exosomes into the extracellular milieu. The mechanisms that underlie the sorting of cellular cargo proteins are currently unknown. In this study, we show that the COP9 signalosome (CSN)-associated protein CSN5 quantitatively regulated proteins that were sorted into exosomes.
BACKGROUND: Maternal allergy is believed to be a risk factor for peanut allergy (PNA) in children. However, there is no direct evidence of maternal transmission of PNA susceptibility, and it is unknown whether maternal peanut exposure affects the development of PNA in offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of maternal PNA on offspring reactions to the first peanut exposure, and whether maternal low-dose peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation influences these reactions and peanut sensitization in a murine model.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
As clinical evidence suggests that mechanical forces can have both reparative and traumatic effects on the spine, we investigated responses to different magnitudes, frequencies, and durations of applied tensile strain in an in vitro system. We examined the interactions of inflammatory and mechanical stimuli on cells isolated from the annulus fibrosus. Rabbit annulus fibrosus fibrochondrocytes were cultured in the presence or absence of an inflammatory stimulus.
Autophagy has been referred to as a double-edged sword in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Emerging evidence suggests that pharmacological modulation of autophagy is a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer. However, few autophagy-modulating compounds are currently approved for clinical use in humans. Matrine is a natural compound extracted from traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used for treatment of a variety of diseases without any obvious side effects.