BACKGROUND: The role of social-environmental factors in physical activity (PA) within lower income and ethnic minority populations is understudied. This study explored correlates of age-related PA and perceived walkability (PW). METHODS: Cross-sectional data (N = 401 women; ?18 y) were collected within the Jane-Finch community in Toronto, Ontario using questionnaires. Generalized additive models, an extension to multiple regression, were used to estimate effect sizes and standard errors.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
BACKGROUND: Between 1992 and 2010 in the Costa Rican Caribbean, a social movement coalition called Foro Ema˙s sought to change people's view on problems of high pesticide use in banana production. OBJECTIVE: To understand the formation and membership of Foro Ema˙s, its success period, and its decline. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews of 28 key actors; a questionnaire survey among school personnel (n = 475) in Siquirres, Matina, and Talamanca counties; and secondary data from newspapers, leaflets, and movement documents were used.
AIM: To investigate the influence of perceived stress, optimism and perceived control of internal states on the psychological adjustment of older adults. METHOD: The sample consisted of 212 older adults, aged between 58 and 103 (M?=?80.42 years, SD?=?7.31 years), living primarily in retirement villages in Melbourne, Victoria. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Perceived Control of Internal States Scale and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Bref.
We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol.
Many variants that could be returned from genome sequencing may be perceived as ambiguous-lacking reliability, credibility, or adequacy. Little is known about how perceived ambiguity influences thoughts about sequencing results. Participants (n†=†494) in an NIH genome sequencing study completed a baseline survey before sequencing results were available. We examined how perceived ambiguity regarding sequencing results and individual differences in medical ambiguity aversion and tolerance for uncertainty were associated with cognitions and intentions concerning sequencing results.
IMPORTANCE: Information regarding treatment options and prognosis is essential for patient decision making. Patient perception of physicians as being less compassionate when they deliver bad news might be a contributor to physicians' reluctance in delivering these types of communication.
This study investigated the differences in the mother-daughter relationship of pregnant and nonpregnant adolescents. Data were gathered from questionnaires completed by 40 nonpregnant and 20 pregnant adolescents. All respondents were single, secondary school students matched on all demographic variables except grade point average which was significantly lower for the pregnant group. Significant differences in perception of their relationships with their mothers were found on love, attention, and interdependence, with the pregnant group perceiving less of these factors.
Feelings of romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and a control group of nonpregnant, nonparenting adolescents were investigated. The Bachman Self-Esteem Scale (Bachman, O'Malley, & Johnston, 1978) and the Dean Romanticism Scale (Dean, 1961) were distributed to 649 U.S. female adolescents--255 pregnant adolescents, 121 adolescent mothers, and 273 teenagers in the control group.
The interplay between idealization and disillusionment in the evolution of romantic love is examined. Idealization refers to the reawakening of conscious and unconscious fantasies that lovers project onto each other. Disillusionment refers to a change in perception that occurs when projections are not sustained. The optimal balance between idealization and disillusionment facilitates the deepening of intimacy in a process similar to the one Kohut describes in the development of self structure. Conversely, a great imbalance between idealization and disillusionment can lead to heartache.
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science
BACKGROUND: Needs for care in service users with schizophrenia are often defined by professionals and focus on basic needs for health and social care rather than broader existential issues. AIMS: To examine the perceptions of users and formal and informal carers of the needs of people with non-affective psychosis. METHOD: A qualitative study was conducted involving focus groups of service users and informal and formal carers in a major Brazilian city. RESULTS: Existential needs were the most important theme for people with psychotic disorders.