The activity of 33 neurons of pontomesencephalic dorsolateral periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), not triggered by motor or sensory stimuli, has been recorded during tonic immobility (animal hypnosis) and after morphine injection (5 mg/kg IV). Several parameters of neural activity were chronically studied, including: frequency, variability and pattern of discharge. Tonic immobility affected the frequency and the variability of the firing rate of the majority of neurons. Morphine decreased frequency and increased variability of 73.3% of the neurons.
Tonic immobility (TI), also known as death feigning or animal hypnosis, is a reversible state of motor inhibition that is triggered by postural inversion and/or movement restraining maneuvers but also by repetitive stimulation and pressure on body parts. Our previous studies demonstrated that cholinergic stimulation of the central amygdala (CEA) decreases the duration of TI in guinea pigs. Some reports have demonstrated that electrical or chemical stimulation of the CEA promotes antinociception.
Labetalol, a combined alpha1, beta1, and beta2 adrenoceptor-blocking drug, has been shown to have analgesic properties in vivo. To determine the underlying mechanisms, we examined its effects on GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and spontaneous firings of rat ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons, either mechanically dissociated, or in acute brain slices. These PAG neurons mediate opioid-mediated analgesia and pain transmission and are under tonic control of GABAergic interneurons.
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is known to play a crucial role in pain modulation and has shown a strong interaction with anterior cingulate cortex in previous functional imaging studies. We investigated the intrinsic functional connectivity of PAG using resting fMRI data from 100 subjects. The results showed that PAG is functionally connected to ACC (rostral and pregenual ACC) and also rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), forming a core ACC-PAG-RVM network for pain modulation even no pain stimulus is applied.
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) is currently one of the most popular acupuncture modalities. However, the continuous stimulation characteristic of EA treatment presents challenges to the use of conventional functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) approaches for the investigation of neural mechanisms mediating treatment response because of the requirement for brief and intermittent stimuli in event related or block designed task paradigms.
This study investigated sex similarities and differences in pain-related functional connectivity in 60 healthy subjects. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and psychophysiological interaction analysis to investigate how exposure to low vs high experimental pain modulates the functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray (PAG).
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
AIM: To study the changes of monoamines in ventrolatoral periaqueductal gray of rat brain before and after electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia (EAA) was enhanced by fenfluramine (Fen), a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) releaser. METHODS: Monoamines were collected by in vivo microdialysis and measured by HPLC connected with electrochemical detector. RESULTS: The level of norepinephrine (Nor) after EA was decreased (P < 0.05 vs NS group).
Traditionally, Corydalis tuber has been used for the control of pain including headache, stomach ache, and neuralgia. In the present study, modulation of the Corydalis tuber on glycine-activated ion current in the acutely dissociated periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons was studied by a nystatin-perforated patch-clamp technique. High concentrations of Corydalis tuber elicited ion current, which was suppressed by strychnine application, while low concentrations of Corydalis tuber reduced glycine-induced ion current in the PAG neurons.