Cellular damage invoked by reactive oxygen species plays a key role in the pathobiology of cancer and aging. Forkhead box class O (FoxO) transcription factors are involved in various cellular processes including cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and resistance to reactive oxygen species, and studies in animal models have shown that these transcription factors are of vital importance in tumor suppression, stem cell maintenance and lifespan extension.
OBJECTIVES: This double blind randomized clinical trial evaluated the longevity of the whitening effect (6-month follow-up) of two carbamide peroxide concentrations used in at-home vital bleaching. METHODS: Ninety-two volunteers with shade mean C1 or darker for the six maxillary anterior teeth were randomized into two balanced groups (n=46) according to bleaching agent concentration: 10% (CP10) or 16% (CP16) carbamide peroxide. Patients were instructed to use the whitening agent in a tray for 2h/day during 3 weeks.
OBJECTIVES: This double-blind randomized clinical trial aimed to evaluate the whitening effect of two at-home tooth bleaching agents and the effect of dietary habits after 2 years. The patients' view about bleaching longevity was also investigated. METHODS: Ninety-two subjects with mean shade of C1 or darker for the six maxillary anterior teeth were randomized into two groups (n=46) according to the carbamide peroxide (CP) concentration: 10% (CP10) or 16% (CP16). The treatment was performed using the whitening agent in a tray for 2h/day during 3 weeks.
Artemisinin and its derivatives are endoperoxide-containing compounds which represent a promising new class of antimalarial drugs. In the presence of intraparasitic iron, these drugs are converted into free radicals and other electrophilic intermediates which then alkylate specific malaria target proteins. Combinations of available derivatives and other antimalarial agents show promise both as first-line agents and in the treatment of severe disease.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Ro 42-1611 (arteflene) is a synthetic endoperoxide antimalarial. The antimalarial activity of endoperoxides is attributed to iron(II)-mediated generation of carbon-centered radicals. An alpha, beta-unsaturated ketone (enone; 4-[2',4' bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-buten-2-one), obtained from arteflene by reaction with iron(II), was identified previously as the stable product of a reaction that, by inference, also yields a cyclohexyl radical. The activation of arteflene in vivo has been characterized with particular reference to enone formation.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals
beta-Artemether (AM), the O-methyl ether prodrug of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), is an endoperoxide antimalarial. The biliary metabolites of AM in adult male Wistar rats were characterized with particular reference to potential antimalarial compounds and stable derivatives of free radical intermediates. [13-(14)C]-AM (35 micromol kg(-1), i.v.) was administered to anesthetized rats. Within 0 to 3 h, 38.6 +/- 4.8% (mean +/- S.D., n = 6) of the radiolabel was recovered in bile; the 0- to 5-h recovery was 42.3 +/- 4.3%.
The in vitro potentiation of artemisinin by synthetic manganese porphyrin complexes has been recently reported (F. Benoit-Vical, A. Robert, and B. Meunier, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:2555-2558, 1999). Since the activity of artemisinin and synthetic antimalarial endoperoxides is related to their interaction with heme (S. R. Meshnick, A. Thomas, A. Ranz, C. M. Xu, and H. Z. Pan, Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 49:181-190, 1991), an improvement of their efficiency may be expected in the presence of a synthetic metalloporphyrin having the same activating role as endogenous heme.
There is an urgent need to discover new antimalarials, due to the spread of chloroquine resistance and the limited number of available drugs. In the last few years, artemisinin, the endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone derived from Artemisia annua, and its derivatives proved to be very active against Plasmodium falciparum. These compounds are characterized by an endoperoxide pharmacophore that is critical for their antimalarial activity.
The discovery of artemisinin more than 30 years ago provided a completely new antimalarial structural prototype; that is, a molecule with a pharmacophoric peroxide bond in a unique 1,2,4-trioxane heterocycle. Available evidence suggests that artemisinin and related peroxidic antimalarial drugs exert their parasiticidal activity subsequent to reductive activation by haem, released as a result of haemoglobin digestion by the malaria-causing parasite.
OBJECTIVES: Using synchronous cultures of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the stage sensitivity of the parasite to OZ277 (RBx-11160), the first fully synthetic antimalarial peroxide that has entered Phase II clinical trials, was investigated in vitro over a concentration range of 1 x to 100 x the IC50. Secondly, partitioning of OZ277 into P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (RBCs) and uninfected RBCs was studied in vitro by measuring its distribution between RBCs and plasma (R/P).