Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

Publication Title: 
Nature Communications

With ageing, there is a loss of adult stem cell function. However, there is no direct evidence that this has a causal role in ageing-related decline. We tested this using muscle-derived stem/progenitor cells (MDSPCs) in a murine progeria model. Here we show that MDSPCs from old and progeroid mice are defective in proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Intraperitoneal administration of MDSPCs, isolated from young wild-type mice, to progeroid mice confer significant lifespan and healthspan extension.

Author(s): 
Lavasani, Mitra
Robinson, Andria R.
Lu, Aiping
Song, Minjung
Feduska, Joseph M.
Ahani, Bahar
Tilstra, Jeremy S.
Feldman, Chelsea H.
Robbins, Paul D.
Niedernhofer, Laura J.
Huard, Johnny
Publication Title: 
Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology

Dietary restriction (DR) remains the most powerful and general environmental manipulation of aging processes in laboratory animals with strong beneficial effects on most age-related degenerative changes throughout the body. Underlying the beneficial effects of DR is the attenuation of system-wide inflammatory processes including those occurring within the central nervous system. During normal aging a progressive neuroinflammatory state builds in the brain involving astrocytes and microglia, the primary cellular components of neuroinflammation.

Author(s): 
Morgan, T. E.
Wong, A. M.
Finch, C. E.
Publication Title: 
Atherosclerosis

Large clinical trials demonstrate that control of blood pressure or hyperlipidemia reduces risk for cardiovascular events by approximately 30%. Factors that may further reduce remaining risk are not definitively established. One potential target is atherosclerosis, a crucial feature in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases whose development is determined by multiple mechanism including complex interactions between endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance.

Author(s): 
Koh, Kwang Kon
Han, Seung Hwan
Oh, Pyung Chun
Shin, Eak Kyun
Quon, Michael J.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating and widespread immune-mediated illness of unknown etiology. Current treatments are modestly successful and with significant side-effects. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current understanding of mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in IBD.

Author(s): 
Bassaganya-Riera, Josep
Hontecillas, Raquel
Publication Title: 
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptors superfamily and are transcription factors activated by specific ligands. Liver X receptors (LXR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptors and have been shown to play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. From the previous screening of several medicinal plants for potential partial PPARγ agonists, the extracts of Cornus alternifolia were found to exhibit promising bioactivity.

Author(s): 
He, Yang-Qing
Ma, Guo-Yi
Peng, Jiang-nan
Ma, Zhan-Ying
Hamann, Mark T.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating and widespread immune-mediated illness characterized by excessive inflammatory and effector mucosal responses leading to tissue destruction at the gastrointestinal tract. Interactions among the immune system, the commensal microbiota and the host genotype are thought to underlie the pathogenesis of IBD. However, the precise etiology of IBD remains unknown. Diet-induced changes in the composition of the gut microbiome can modulate the induction of regulatory versus effector immune responses at the gut mucosa and improve health outcomes.

Author(s): 
Viladomiu, Monica
Hontecillas, Raquel
Yuan, Lijuan
Lu, Pinyi
Bassaganya-Riera, Josep
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Berberine is one of the main alkaloids of Rhizoma coptidis which has been used as a folk medicine to treat diabetes mellitus for more than 1400 years in China. To investigate the chronic effect of berberine on diabetic hyperlipidemic rats, fasted rats were intraperitoneally injected 35 mg/kg streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were admitted after 2 weeks and given a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet to induce hyperlipidemia.

Author(s): 
Zhou, Ji Yin
Zhou, Shi Wen
Zhang, Ke Bin
Tang, Jian Lin
Guang, Li Xia
Ying, Yi
Xu, Ying
Zhang, Le
Li, Dan Dan
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Fatty acids stimulate lipid accumulation in parallel with increased expression of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) in liver cells. Although it is generally considered that the fatty acid effect on ADRP expression is mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), we identified here an additional molecular mechanism using the NMuLi mouse liver nonparenchymal cell line, which expresses PPARgamma and delta but not alpha.

Author(s): 
Fan, Bin
Ikuyama, Shoichiro
Gu, Jian-Qiu
Wei, Ping
Oyama, Jun-ichi
Inoguchi, Toyoshi
Nishimura, Junji
Publication Title: 
Rheumatology International

The research is aimed to explore the distinct molecular signatures in discriminating the rheumatoid arthritis patients with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cold pattern and heat pattern. Twenty patients with typical TCM cold pattern and heat pattern were included. Microarray technology was used to reveal gene expression profiles in CD4+ T cells. The signal intensity of each expressed gene was globally normalized using the R statistics program. The ratio of cold pattern to heat pattern in patients with RA at more or less than 1:2 was taken as the differential gene expression criteria.

Author(s): 
Lu, Cheng
Xiao, Cheng
Chen, Gao
Jiang, Miao
Zha, Qinglin
Yan, Xiaoping
Kong, Weiping
Lu, Aiping
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