European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Kraepelin's dichotomy, manic-depressive insanity and dementia praecox, are contrasting and true endogenous disease entities which affect excitability, the fundamental property of the CNS. Kraepelin wanted to establish a valid classification and hit the extremes in brain structure and function at a time when we had no knowledge of brain dysfunction in "functional" psychoses. The aetiology is now known: the psychoses are part of human growth and maturation and might be classified according to their brain dysfunction, which is exactly what Kraepelin wanted.
Borderline personality is a well known concept in psychiatric literature, however, not fully understood as to its very nature. This article presents a short review of hypothesized etiologies of the borderline personality, starting with so called traditional theories, namely, borderline personality as a consolidated personality organization, in which the patient pathologically deals with his or her inner aggression, or with an enduring developmental failure.
After 30 years of clinical work and research based on categorical criteria for personality disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - DSM IV TR) and (International Classification of Diseases - ICD 10th revision), a solid conceptual understanding and treatment of these disorders have not been established. For the field to move forward, it is imperative that future classifications introduce major revisions of the concept, diagnosis, and classification of personality disorders. This paper proposes one such revision.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
OBJECTIVE: Child and adolescent psychiatry is rife with examples of the sustained effects of early experience on brain function. The study of behavioral genetics provides evidence for a relation between genomic variation and personality and with the risk for psychopathology. A pressing challenge is that of conceptually integrating findings from genetics into the study of personality without regressing to arguments concerning the relative importance of genomic variation versus nongenomic or environmental influences.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In last years, the concept of personality moved from the stability of categorical models over the lifespan to the complex interactions between gene, environment, and clinical expression according to the dimensional approaches. Within this framework, studies start to explore the impact of personality on the evolution and treatment of depression in old age.(Figure is included in full-text article.) RECENT FINDINGS: Empirical evidence from younger patients has repeatedly confirmed that personality traits predict treatment course and outcome of depression.
The present review/perspectives article provides a short overview of our current understanding of the molecular genetics of personality. In the first part, the most important gene candidates such as COMT or SLC6A4 gene are presented. Since several seminal review studies have recently been published on different facets of molecular genetics and personality/emotionality, we focus the second half of the present article on new relevant research directions. This includes a stronger focus on animal research based testing of candidate genes (e.g.
Pathological hatred affects belong to the paranoic reactions, paranoic developments and paranoid psychoses. The normal hatred affect helps as a means to the end of removing the object of hatred. The passion of hatred is an affect swinging between a feeling of triumph and a feeling of impotence and the cardinal symptom of a paranoic neurotic development. Hatred becomes monomania when the affect degenerates maniacally (e. g. queruousness) or perversely (e. g. misogyny). In catathymic mania, hatred is projected on to the "pursuer".
The author hypothesizes that erotomania, or de ClÈrambault's syndrome, occurs in two forms: the clinically accepted delusional erotomania, in which patients believe that another person is in love with them; and borderline erotomania, in which no delusion is present, yet an extreme disorder of attachment is apparent in the pursuit of, and in the potential for violence toward, the unrequited love object.
Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Just as the couple becomes the repository of both partners' conscious and unconscious sexual fantasies and desires, and of their consciously and unconsciously activated internalized object relations, so does the couple activate both partners' conscious and unconscious superego functions. The interaction of the partners' superego over time results in the forging of a new system, which I am calling the couple's superego. The functions of the couple's joint superego structure is described, as are the symptoms of superego pathology in the couple's love life.
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science
The study tested Bowlby's hypothesis that experiencing the poor relating of parents in childhood predisposes the individual to poor relating in adult life. Data were drawn from two community samples: a younger sample of 25-34-year-old married women, and an older one of 40-49-year-old women. Data were also drawn from the husbands of the women in the younger sample. It focused on the single childhood variable of the recollection of poor maternal care.