The aim of this manuscript was to investigate the effectiveness of conservative therapy for phantom limb pain (PLP). In this systematic review, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, PEDro, psychology and behavioral sciences collection, and MEDLINE were systematically searched for appropriate randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Selected papers were assessed for risk of bias, and evidence was graded using the GRADE approach. Twelve RCTs met initial inclusion/exclusion criteria, of which five were of sufficient quality for final inclusion.
Fantasies concerning an amputated limb can contribute to the occurrence of persistent phantom limb pain. We report a case in which burning pain perceived as located in the amputated lower extremities was related to the patient's feelings about incineration of the removed limbs against her wishes. Hypnotherapy involving elucidation of the fantasy and suggestion was successfully employed in this case and may be a helpful approach in other such cases.
The successful treatment of severe left lower limb phantom pain is reported. Hypnosis and antidepressant drugs were the basis for the treatment which controlled the phantom limb pain and an associated post-traumatic stress disorder.
Pain and other phantom limb (PL) sensations have been proposed to be generated in the brain and to be reflected in activation of specific neural circuits. To test this hypothesis, hypnosis was used as a cognitive tool to alternate between the sensation of PL movement and pain in 8 amputees. Brain activity was measured using positron emission tomography. PL movement and pain were represented by a propagation of neuronal activity within the corresponding sensorimotor and pain-processing networks.