Nelumbo nucifera, also known as sacred lotus, has primarily been used as food throughout the Asian continent, and its medicinal values have been described in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The purpose of this study is to systematically characterize the chemical profiling and pharmacological activities of N. nucifera. Herein, we critically reviewed and analysed the phytochemical and pharmacological reports of N. nucifera.
The field of toxicology adopted the threshold dose response in the early decades of the 20th century. The model was rapidly incorporated into governmental regulatory assessment procedures and became a central feature of chemical evaluation and assessment. The toxicological community never validated the capacity of this model to make accurate predictions throughout the remainder of the 20th century. A series of recent investigations have demonstrated that the threshold and linear dose response model failed to make accurate predictions in the low dose zone.
Methyldopa potentiated hypnosis due to hexobarbitone in mice, as did reserpine, chlorpromazine and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Methyldopa antagonized the increase by reserpine of sleep due to hexobarbitone, but enhanced the potentiation by chlorpromazine and 5-hydroxytryptamine of hypnosis due to hexobarbitone. The sedative effect of reserpine in mice and the emetic effect in pigeons were also antagonized by methyldopa. However, the effects of reserpine on convulsions due to leptazol and in causing ptosis were not antagonized by methyldopa.
Seven structurally-related compounds consisting of three antidepressant drugs (imipramine, desmethylimipramine and amitriptyline), three tranquillizing agents (promazine, chlorpromazine and chlorprothixene) and a hybrid, desmethylpromazine, have been examined in a series of tests involving autonomic functions and antagonism of reserpine.