Phenols

Publication Title: 
Poultry Science

Several natural phenolic materials were analyzed for gallic acid and were further characterized for dialyzability and flavonoid content. These materials were added to a diet and fed to broiler strain chicks for 4 weeks. The depression in growth caused by these phenolic materials was compared with that of tannic acid on a gallic acid equivalency basis.

Author(s): 
Kratzer, F. H.
Singleton, V. L.
Kadirvel, R.
Rayudu, G. V.
Publication Title: 
Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung. C, Journal of Biosciences

Thirty-seven plant organs, traditionally used as drugs, collected in Pakistan, were extracted with 70% acetone and analyzed for their total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential. Seven extracts showed more than 85% inhibition of lipid peroxidation in vitro as compared with blank. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (IC50 = 233.6 microg/l +/- 28.3) was the strongest antioxidant in our test system. The IC50 results indicate that the extracts of Nymphaea lotus L. flowers, Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile beans, Terminalia belerica Roxb. fruits, and Terminalia chebula Retz.

Author(s): 
Saleem, A.
Ahotupa, M.
Pihlaja, K.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

A 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit, was studied for its effects on growth in several malignant cell lines including a human (MCF-7) and mouse (S115) breast cancer cell line, a human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS-1), a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) and a non-tumorigenic, immortalized human prostate cell line (PNT1A) using assays for proliferation ([(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and coulter counting), cell viability (ATP determination) and cell death (flow cytometry and Hoechst DNA staining).

Author(s): 
Saleem, Ammar
Husheem, Michael
Härkönen, Pirkko
Pihlaja, Kalevi
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition

To identify promising sources of antioxidants, some food and medicinal plants were studied for total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. The leaves, bark and fruits of Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia muelleri, the leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, and the seeds of Syzygium cumini were found to have high total phenolic contents (72.0-167.2 mg/g) and high antioxidant activity (69.6-90.6%).

Author(s): 
Bajpai, Monika
Pande, Anurag
Tewari, S. K.
Prakash, Dhan
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

The ripe fruit of Terminalia chebula RETZIUS (T. chebula RETZ) (Combretsceae), which is a native plant in India and Southeast Asia, has traditionally been used as a popular folk medicine for homeostatic, antitussive, laxative, diuretic, and cardiotonic treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of an aqueous extract of fruit of T. chebula on the tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury observed in cultured rat primary hepatocytes and rat liver. Both treatment and pretreatment of the hepatocytes with the T.

Author(s): 
Lee, Hyun-Sun
Won, Nam Hee
Kim, Kyoung Heon
Lee, Hojoung
Jun, Woojin
Lee, Kwang-Won
Publication Title: 
Medicinal Chemistry (Shariqah (United Arab Emirates))

Ethanolic extracts of 30 Thai medicinal plants, traditionally used as alternative treatments in diabetes, were evaluated for antioxidative activity by the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method. They were evaluated in vitro for oxidative stress by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) assay in pooled plasma of diabetic patients compared to without treatment of the extracts (control). The extracts were also assayed for protein glycation. The results showed that five plants had strong antioxidant activity: Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

Author(s): 
Kusirisin, W.
Srichairatanakool, S.
Lerttrakarnnon, P.
Lailerd, N.
Suttajit, M.
Jaikang, C.
Chaiyasut, C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Food Science

Triphala, a mixture of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellirica, containing ingredients from plant origin, is often prone to microbial contamination. A high level of microbial contamination was observed in Triphala samples obtained from different sources. On gamma radiation processing, a sharp decline in log CFU was observed with increasing radiation dose and a complete decontamination at 5 kGy. Average D10 value for total aerobic and fungal counts were observed to be 0.55 +/- 0.073 kGy and 0.94 +/- 0.043 kGy, respectively.

Author(s): 
Kumari, N.
Kumar, P.
Mitra, D.
Prasad, B.
Tiwary, B. N.
Varshney, L.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition

Fifteen fruits commonly used by the ethnic population in Nepal were studied for the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content (TPC). Among them, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica and Spondias pinnata were the most potent antioxidants as compared with vitamin C based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical assay. These fruits also contained high TPCs. Spondias pinnata, Pyrularia edulis, Melastoma malabathricum, Cipadema bacifera and Choerospondias axillaries fruits were evaluated for the first time.

Author(s): 
Chalise, Jaya Prakash
Acharya, Kalpana
Gurung, Nirmala
Bhusal, Ram Prasad
Gurung, Reenu
Skalko-Basnet, Natasa
Basnet, Purusotam
Publication Title: 
Phytochemistry

Thirty-four polyphenolic substances in methanol extracts of the fruits of Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia horrida, three plants used in Egyptian folk medicine, were initially identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and quantitated by analytical HPLC after column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20. After purification by semi-preparative HPLC the compounds were identified by their mass and fragmentation patterns using ESI-MS-MS. For several compounds detailed 1H/13C NMR analysis at 600 MHz was performed.

Author(s): 
Pfundstein, Beate
El Desouky, Samy K.
Hull, William E.
Haubner, Roswitha
Erben, Gerhard
Owen, Robert W.
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. METHODS: The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power.

Author(s): 
Hazra, Bibhabasu
Sarkar, Rhitajit
Biswas, Santanu
Mandal, Nripendranath

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