Phosphoproteins

Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that activation of autophagy increases the lifespan of organisms from yeast to flies. In contrast to the lifespan extension effect in lower organisms, it has been reported that overexpression of unc-51-like kinase 3 (ULK3), the mammalian homolog of autophagy-specific gene 1 (ATG1), induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts. Therefore, we assessed whether the activation of autophagy would genuinely induce premature senescence in human cells.

Author(s): 
Kang, Hyun Tae
Lee, Ki Baek
Kim, Sung Young
Choi, Hae Ri
Park, Sang Chul
Publication Title: 
Journal of Endodontics

INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received much attention as a promising population of stem cells in regenerative endodontics. Securing a good blood supply during regeneration is a challenging task because of the constricted apical canal opening, which allows only a limited blood supply. The aim of this study was to investigate any potential synergistic effects of dental pulp stem cells and endothelial cells (ECs) on osteo-/odontogenic and angiogenic differentiation in vitro.

Author(s): 
Dissanayaka, Waruna Lakmal
Zhan, Xuan
Zhang, Chengfei
Hargreaves, Kenneth M.
Jin, Lijian
Tong, Edith H. Y.
Publication Title: 
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)

Caloric restriction has been shown to increase lifespan in several organisms and to delay onset of age-related diseases. The transcriptional response to caloric restriction has been studied for mRNAs, while the microRNA signature following caloric restriction remains unexplored. Here, we characterize the microRNA expression in mouse breast tissue before and after caloric restriction, reporting several changes in the microRNA expression profile.

Author(s): 
ÿrom, Ulf Andersson
Lim, Meng K.
Savage, Jason E.
Jin, Lianjin
Saleh, Anthony D.
Lisanti, Michael P.
Simone, Nicole L.
Publication Title: 
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)

Macroautophagy is a self-cannibalistic process that enables cells to adapt to various stresses and maintain energy homeostasis. Additionally, autophagy is an important route for turnover of misfolded proteins and damaged organelles, with important implications in cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Resveratrol and spermidine are able to induce autophagy by affecting deacetylases and acetylases, respectively, and have been found to extend the life-span of model organisms.

Author(s): 
Bennetzen, Martin V.
MariÒo, Guillermo
Pultz, Dennis
Morselli, Eugenia
FÊrgeman, Nils J.
Kroemer, Guido
Andersen, Jens S.
Publication Title: 
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)

Cellular quiescence is a reversible cell cycle arrest that is poised to re-enter the cell cycle in response to a combination of cell-intrinsic factors and environmental cues. In hematopoietic stem cells, a coordinated balance between quiescence and differentiating proliferation ensures longevity and prevents both genetic damage and stem cell exhaustion. However, little is known about how all these processes are integrated at the molecular level.

Author(s): 
Yamada, Takeshi
Park, Chun Shik
Lacorazza, H. Daniel
Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Nutrition

Nutrigenomics refers to the complex effects of the nutritional environment on the genome, epigenome, and proteome of an organism. The diverse tissue- and organ-specific effects of diet include gene expression patterns, organization of the chromatin, and protein post-translational modifications. Long-term effects of diet range from obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease to increased or decreased longevity.

Author(s): 
Ruden, Douglas M.
De Luca, Maria
Garfinkel, Mark D.
Bynum, Kerry L.
Lu, Xiangyi
Publication Title: 
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)

Caloric restriction has been shown to increase lifespan in several organisms and to delay onset of age-related diseases. The transcriptional response to caloric restriction has been studied for mRNAs, while the microRNA signature following caloric restriction remains unexplored. Here, we characterize the microRNA expression in mouse breast tissue before and after caloric restriction, reporting several changes in the microRNA expression profile.

Author(s): 
ÿrom, Ulf Andersson
Lim, Meng K.
Savage, Jason E.
Jin, Lianjin
Saleh, Anthony D.
Lisanti, Michael P.
Simone, Nicole L.
Publication Title: 
Diabetes

Diabetes is a major risk factor for premature atherosclerosis, and oxidative stress appears to be an important mechanism. Previously, we showed that diabetic monocytes produce increased superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), and alpha-tocopherol (AT) supplementation decreases this. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism(s) of O(2)(-) release and inhibition by AT under hyperglycemic (HG) conditions in monocytes.

Author(s): 
Venugopal, Senthil Kumar
Devaraj, Sridevi
Yang, Teddy
Jialal, Ishwarlal
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Cell culture work suggests that signaling to polymerize cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) represents a required pathway for the optimal redistribution of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter, GLUT4, to the plasma membrane. Recent in vitro study further suggests that the actin-regulatory neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) mediates the effect of insulin on the actin filament network. Here we tested whether similar cytoskeletal mechanics are essential for insulin-regulated glucose transport in isolated rat epitrochlearis skeletal muscle.

Author(s): 
Brozinick, Joseph T.
Hawkins, Eric D.
Strawbridge, Andrew B.
Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.
Publication Title: 
Diabetes

OBJECTIVE: Human adenovirus type 36 (Ad-36) increases adiposity but improves insulin sensitivity in experimentally infected animals. We determined the ability of Ad-36 to increase glucose uptake by human primary skeletal muscle (HSKM) cells. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The effect of Ad-36 on glucose uptake and cell signaling was determined in HSKM cells obtained from type 2 diabetic and healthy lean subjects. Ad-2, another human adenovirus, was used as a negative control. Gene expression and proteins of GLUT1 and GLUT4 were measured by real-time PCR and Western blotting.

Author(s): 
Wang, Zhong Q.
Cefalu, William T.
Zhang, Xian H.
Yu, Yongmei
Qin, Jianhua
Son, Leslie
Rogers, Pamela M.
Mashtalir, Nazar
Bordelon, Justin R.
Ye, Jianping
Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.

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