BACKGROUND: Fibulin-4 is an extracellular matrix protein expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells that is essential for maintaining arterial integrity. Fibulin-4(-/-) mice die just before birth due to arterial hemorrhage, but fibulin-4(+/-) mice appear to be outwardly normal. Experiments were therefore performed to determine whether fibulin-4(+/-) mice display arterial pathologies on a microscopic scale.
Chronic stress is associated with negative health outcomes and is linked with neuroendocrine changes, deleterious effects on innate and adaptive immunity, and central nervous system neuropathology. Although stress management is commonly advocated clinically, there is insufficient mechanistic understanding of how decreasing stress affects disease pathogenesis. Therefore, we have developed a "calm mouse model" with caging enhancements designed to reduce murine stress.
The consumption of moderate amounts of cocoa products has been associated with reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. In animal studies, the flavanol (-)-epicatechin (Epi) yields cardioprotection. The effects may be partly due to its capacity to stimulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The sustained activation of eNOS, as observed with exercise, can serve as a trigger of muscle angiogenesis via the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-related events.
A quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) model was used to study passive time-dependent responses of skeletal muscle to repeated massage-like compressive loading (MLL) following damaging eccentric exercise. Six skeletally mature rabbits were surgically instrumented with bilateral peroneal nerve cuffs for stimulation of the hindlimb tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Following the eccentric exercise, rabbits were randomly assigned to a four-day MLL protocol mimicking deep effleurage (0.5 Hz, 10 N for 15 min or for 30 min).
Endogenous estrogens have bidirectional effects on learning and memory, enhancing or impairing cognition depending on many variables, including the task and the memory systems that are engaged. Moderate increases in estradiol enhance hippocampus-sensitive place learning, yet impair response learning that taps dorsal striatal function. This memory modulation likely occurs via activation of estrogen receptors, resulting in altered neural function.
PURPOSE: This study compared the effect of immediate versus delayed massage-like compressive loading (MLL) on peak isometric torque recovery and inflammatory cell infiltration after eccentric exercise (EEX). METHODS: Eighteen skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits were instrumented with peroneal nerve cuffs for the stimulation of hindlimb tibialis anterior muscles. After a bout of EEX, rabbits were randomly assigned to an MLL protocol (0.5 Hz, 10 N, 15 min) that started immediately post-EEX, 48 h post-EXX, or no-MLL control and performed for four consecutive days.
Estrogens differentially modulate behavior in the adult female rodent. Voluntary exercise can also impact behavior, often reversing age associated decrements in memory processes. Our research group has published a series of papers reporting a deficit in the acquisition of an operant working memory task, delayed spatial alternation (DSA), following 17β-estradiol treatment to middle-aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The current study examined if voluntary exercise could attenuate the 17β-estradiol induced deficits on DSA performance.
Ultrasonography must be used in combination with physical examination for the appropriate diagnosis of acute tendon injuries. Therapy should be designed to return the tendon to its normal function and appearance. Local and systemic anti-inflammatory agents, cold hydrotherapy and massage minimize excessive scar formation and progressively increasing tensile forces directs scar tissue to replace the tendon function.
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Common methods used to treat back problems in horses need to be assessed objectively. OBJECTIVES: To measure spinal mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and evaluate the effects of chiropractic, massage and phenylbutazone, compared with active and inactive control groups. METHODS: Baseline MNTs at 7 sites within the thoracolumbar and sacral regions were measured in 38 healthy mature horses exhibiting no clinical signs of lumbar pain.
AIM: To obtain data on the use of allied health therapy within competitive equestrian sport in the North Island of New Zealand. METHODS: Data were collected during January 2010 by survey at show jumping and dressage championships in the North Island, and from racing yards in the Central Districts of New Zealand. The survey consisted of 30 open, closed and multiple-choice questions, and was conducted face-to-face, by the same interviewer.