Physical Endurance

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system affecting an estimated 1.3 million people worldwide. It is characterised by a variety of disabling symptoms of which excessive fatigue is the most frequent. Fatigue is often reported as the most invalidating symptom in people with MS. Various mechanisms directly and indirectly related to the disease and physical inactivity have been proposed to contribute to the degree of fatigue.

Author(s): 
Heine, Martin
van de Port, Ingrid
Rietberg, Marc B.
van Wegen, Erwin E. H.
Kwakkel, Gert
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the homeopathic medicine Arnica D30 has an effect on muscle soreness and cell damage after marathon running. METHODS: The subjects were 82 marathon runners from two separate randomised double-blind placebo controlled trials participating in the Oslo Marathon in 1990 and 1995. Five pills of Arnica D30 or placebo were given morning and evening. Treatment started on the evening before the marathon and continued on day of the race and the three following days. The runners assessed muscular soreness on a visual analogue scale.

Author(s): 
Tveiten, D.
Bruset, S.
Publication Title: 
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

Calorie restriction (CR) slows aging and is thought to improve insulin sensitivity in laboratory animals. In contrast, decreased insulin signaling and/or mild insulin resistance paradoxically extends maximal lifespan in various genetic animal models of longevity. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR on glucose tolerance and insulin action in lean healthy humans.

Author(s): 
Fontana, Luigi
Klein, Samuel
Holloszy, John O.
Publication Title: 
Clinics in Sports Medicine

The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant.

Author(s): 
Coyle, E. F.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Pharmacological and metabolic effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L. (Solanaceae)) used in Ayurveda as a herbal tonic and health food were studied. Ashwagandha was shown to increase swimming time in rats in physical working capacity test, i.e. rats swimming endurance test. Significant increase in relative heart weight and glycogen content in myocardium and liver was also observed in ashwagandha treated group. Ashwagandha treatment increased the duration of contractility in functional test for the resistance of frog heart muscle towards the toxic action of strophanthin-K.

Author(s): 
Dhuley, J. N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Pharmacological and metabolic effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L. (Solanaceae)) used in Ayurveda as a herbal tonic and health food were studied. Ashwagandha was shown to increase swimming time in rats in physical working capacity test, i.e. rats swimming endurance test. Significant increase in relative heart weight and glycogen content in myocardium and liver was also observed in ashwagandha treated group. Ashwagandha treatment increased the duration of contractility in functional test for the resistance of frog heart muscle towards the toxic action of strophanthin-K.

Author(s): 
Dhuley, J. N.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

The present study was designed to test whether yoga training of six weeks duration modulates sweating response to dynamic exercise and improves respiratory pressures, handgrip strength and handgrip endurance. Out of 46 healthy subjects (30 males and 16 females, aged 17-20 yr), 23 motivated subjects (15 male and 8 female) were given yoga training and the remaining 23 subjects served as controls.

Author(s): 
Madanmohan, null
Mahadevan, Sivasubramaniyan K.
Balakrishnan, Selvakumar
Gopalakrishnan, Maya
Prakash, E. S.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake is inversely associated with the muscle glycogen concentration. To investigate whether this association is a cause and effect relationship, we compared insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake in noncontracted and postcontracted muscle of GSL3-transgenic and wild-type mice. GSL3-transgenic mice overexpress a constitutively active form of glycogen synthase, which results in an abundant storage of muscle glycogen. Muscle contraction was elicited by in situ electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve.

Author(s): 
Fogt, Donovan L.
Pan, Shujia
Lee, Sukho
Ding, Zhenping
Scrimgeour, Angus
Lawrence, John C.
Ivy, John L.
Publication Title: 
AIDS research and human retroviruses

As HAART becomes more accessible in sub-Saharan Africa, metabolic syndromes, body fat redistribution (BFR), and cardiovascular disease may become more prevalent. We conducted a 6-month, randomized controlled trial to test whether cardiorespiratory exercise training (CET), improves metabolic, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters in HAART-treated HIV(+) African subjects with BFR.

Author(s): 
Mutimura, Eugene
Crowther, Nigel J.
Cade, Todd W.
Yarasheski, Kevin E.
Stewart, Aimee
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Progressive resistance exercise training (PRT) improves physical functioning in patients with HIV infection. Creatine supplementation can augment the benefits derived from training in athletes and improve muscle function in patients with muscle wasting. The objective of this study was to determine whether creatine supplementation augments the effects of PRT on muscle strength, energetics, and body composition in HIV-infected patients.

Author(s): 
Sakkas, Giorgos K.
Mulligan, Kathleen
Dasilva, Makani
Doyle, Julie W.
Khatami, Hootan
Schleich, Thomas
Kent-Braun, Jane A.
Schambelan, Morris

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