Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
Acupuncture is an ancient East Asian healing modality that has been in use for more than 2000 years. Unfortunately, its mechanisms of action are not well understood, and controversy regarding its clinical efficacy remains. Importantly, acupuncture needling often evokes complex somatosensory sensations and may modulate the cognitive/affective perception of pain, suggesting that many effects are supported by the brain and extending central nervous system (CNS) networks.
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia (swallowing problems) are common after stroke and can cause chest infection and malnutrition. Dysphagic, and malnourished, stroke patients have a poorer outcome. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions for the treatment of dysphagia (swallowing therapy), and nutritional and fluid supplementation, in patients with acute and subacute (within six months from onset) stroke.
PURPOSE: Chemoneuropathy remains a painful, burdensome complication of cancer treatment for patients receiving a range of chemotherapeutics, yet the cause and persistence of this condition are not fully documented. This study was designed to quantify the longevity of and contributions to neuropathy following treatment with the plant alkaloids paclitaxel and vincristine.
Social preferences like interpersonal altruism, fairness, reciprocity and inequity aversion are inherently linked to departures from pure self-interest. During economic interactions, for example, defectors may be punished even if this implies a cost for the punishers. This violation of canonical assumptions in economics indicates that socially oriented decisions may predominate over self-centred stances. Here we explore whether the personal experience of pain changes the balance between self-gain and socially based choices.
Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology
Hippocampal and neocortical EEG was studied in spontaneously immobile rabbits and in immobilized rabbits, "animal hypnosis.' Neocortical low voltage fast activity (LVFA) and hippocampal rhythmical slow activity (RSA) occurred spontaneously and were elicited by sensory stimulation, eserine and brain stimulation in normally immobile and hypnotized animals. Atropine sulfate blocked the LVFA and RSA that occurred during spontaneous immobility and hypnosis but not the LVFA and RSA that occurred during movement.
The neural mechanisms underlying hypnotic states and responses to hypnotic suggestions remain largely unknown and, to date, have been studied only with indirect methods. Here, the effects of hypnosis and suggestions to alter pain perception were investigated in hypnotizable subjects by using positron emission tomography (PET) measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of brain electrical activity.
Tonic immobility (TI), also known as death feigning or animal hypnosis, is a reversible state of motor inhibition that is triggered by postural inversion and/or movement restraining maneuvers but also by repetitive stimulation and pressure on body parts. Our previous studies demonstrated that cholinergic stimulation of the central amygdala (CEA) decreases the duration of TI in guinea pigs. Some reports have demonstrated that electrical or chemical stimulation of the CEA promotes antinociception.
BACKGROUND: Automatic control of depth of hypnosis using the Bispectral Index (BIS) can help to reduce phases of inadequate control. Automated BIS control with propofol or isoflurane administration via an infusion system has recently been described, a comparable study with isoflurane administration via a vaporizer had not been conducted yet. Our hypothesis was that our new model based closed-loop control system can safely be applied clinically and maintains the BIS within a defined target range better than manual control.
In 21 patients given sevoflurane anesthesia, we simultaneously compared the abilities of Bispectral Index (BIS) and rapidly extracted auditory evoked potentials index (AAI) to display the effect of an increasing cerebral concentration of sevoflurane, with and without noxious stimulation. In addition to BIS/AAI, hemodynamic variables were monitored. After titrating sevoflurane to BIS = 50-55 during 15 min, the end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane (1.46% +/- 0.20%) was doubled followed by a noxious stimulus, laryngoscopy, applied at random time points within the following 15 min.