Phytosterols

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Medicinal plant products are used orally for treating osteoarthritis. Although their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in full detail, interactions with common inflammatory mediators provide a rationale for using them to treat osteoarthritic complaints. OBJECTIVES: To update a previous Cochrane review to assess the benefits and harms of oral medicinal plant products in treating osteoarthritis.

Author(s): 
Cameron, Melainie
Chrubasik, Sigrun
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

In India, Azadirachta indica is typically known as 'neem tree' and its leaves has long been used in the ayurvedic medical tradition as a treatment for diabetes mellitus. In-depth chromatographic investigation on chloroform extract resulted in identification of one new tetranortriterpenoid. Structural elucidation was established on the basis of spectral data as 24,25,26,27-tetranor-apotirucalla-(apoeupha)-1α-senecioyloxy-3α,7α-dihydroxy-14,20,22-trien-21,23-epoxy named by us as meliacinolin (1).

Author(s): 
Perez-Gutierrez, Rosa Martha
Damian-Guzman, Monica
Publication Title: 
Physiologia Plantarum

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal., Solanaceae) is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Ayurveda, the traditional medical system. Several of its traditionally proclaimed medicinal properties have been corroborated by recent molecular pharmacological investigations and have been shown to be associated with its specific secondary metabolites known as withanolides, the novel group of ergostane skeletal phytosteroids named after the plant.

Author(s): 
Sangwan, Rajender Singh
Das Chaurasiya, Narayan
Lal, Payare
Misra, Laxminarain
Tuli, Rakesh
Sangwan, Neelam Singh
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

In India, Azadirachta indica is typically known as 'neem tree' and its leaves has long been used in the ayurvedic medical tradition as a treatment for diabetes mellitus. In-depth chromatographic investigation on chloroform extract resulted in identification of one new tetranortriterpenoid. Structural elucidation was established on the basis of spectral data as 24,25,26,27-tetranor-apotirucalla-(apoeupha)-1α-senecioyloxy-3α,7α-dihydroxy-14,20,22-trien-21,23-epoxy named by us as meliacinolin (1).

Author(s): 
Perez-Gutierrez, Rosa Martha
Damian-Guzman, Monica
Publication Title: 
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

OBJECTIVE: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Therapeutic lifestyle changes include dietary modifications such as inclusion of phytosterols, which effectively lowers low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in margarines and other fats. Their effectiveness in nonfat moieties is not yet established. The aim of this study was to examine if phytosterols alter the plasma lipoprotein profile when incorporated into nonfat orange juice.

Author(s): 
Devaraj, Sridevi
Jialal, Ishwarlal
Vega-López, Sonia
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Dietary plant sterols effectively reduce LDL cholesterol when incorporated into fat matrices. We showed previously that supplementation with orange juice containing plant sterols (2 g/d) significantly reduced LDL cholesterol. Inflammation is pivotal in atherosclerosis. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), the prototypic marker of inflammation, is a cardiovascular disease risk marker; however, there is a paucity of data on the effect of plant sterols on CRP concentrations.

Author(s): 
Devaraj, Sridevi
Autret, Bryce C.
Jialal, Ishwarlal
Publication Title: 
Lipids

Previous methods for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols have usually used GC-MS and require elaborate sample preparation including chemical derivatization. Other common methods such as HPLC with absorbance detection do not provide information regarding the identity of the analytes.

Author(s): 
Mo, Shunyan
Dong, Linlin
Hurst, W. Jeffrey
van Breemen, Richard B.
Publication Title: 
Lipids in Health and Disease

BACKGROUND: In addition to lowering LDL-C, emerging data suggests that phytosterols (PS) may reduce blood triglycerides (TG), however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. METHODS: We examined the TG-lowering mechanisms of dietary PS in Syrian golden hamsters randomly assigned to a high fat (HF) diet or the HF diet supplemented with PS (2%) for 6 weeks (n = 12/group). An additional subset of animals (n = 12) was provided the HF diet supplemented with ezetimibe (EZ, 0.002%) as a positive control as it is a cholesterol-lowering agent with known TG-lowering properties.

Author(s): 
Rideout, Todd C.
Ramprasath, Vanu
Griffin, John D.
Browne, Richard W.
Harding, Scott V.
Jones, Peter J. H.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Dietetic Association

Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify the phytosterol content of these prototype diets and three other diets consumed in the United States.

Author(s): 
Racette, Susan B.
Spearie, Catherine Anderson
Phillips, Katherine M.
Lin, Xiaobo
Ma, Lina
Ostlund, Richard E.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition

This randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial assessed the lipid-altering efficacy of a dietary supplement (tablet form) providing 1.8 g/day free (non-esterified) plant sterols and stanols versus placebo for 6 weeks as part of a therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) diet in 32 men and women with primary hypercholesterolaemia.

Author(s): 
Maki, Kevin C.
Lawless, Andrea L.
Reeves, Matthew S.
Dicklin, Mary R.
Jenks, Belinda H.
Shneyvas, Ed
Brooks, James R.

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