Picolinic Acids

Publication Title: 
Medical Hypotheses

The insulin-sensitizing drug phenformin, in addition to its clinical utility in type II diabetes, has been reported to lower blood lipids, reduce body fat, enhance cellular immunity, and--in rodents--to increase mean lifespan and retard the development of growth of cancer. Initial studies with the insulin-sensitizing nutrient chromium picolinate indicate that it aids glucose tolerance in type II diabetes, lowers elevated LDL cholesterol, reduces body fat while increasing lean mass, and--in rats--increases median lifespan.

Author(s): 
McCarty, M. F.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

A retrospective study of 261 Vietnamese adults with severe malaria was conducted to determine the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of metabolites of the kynurenine pathway, the incidence of neurologic complications, and the disease outcome. Three metabolites were measured: the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QA); the protective receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KA); and the proinflammatory mediator picolinic acid (PA). These measurements were related prospectively to CSF lactate levels. QA and PA levels were elevated, compared with those of controls.

Author(s): 
Medana, Isabelle M.
Hien, Tran Tinh
Day, Nicholas P.
Phu, Nguyen Hoan
Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang
Chu'ong, Ly Van
Chau, Tran Thi Hong
Taylor, Anne
Salahifar, Houta
Stocker, Roland
Smythe, George
Turner, Gareth D. H.
Farrar, Jeremy
White, Nicholas J.
Hunt, Nicholas H.
Publication Title: 
Mutation Research

Since trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) enhances glucose metabolism, interest in the use of Cr(3+)as a therapy for type 2 diabetes has grown in the mainstream medical community. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that Cr(3+) may also benefit cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atypical depression. We have found that cholesterol, a lipid implicated in both CVD and neurodegenerative disorders, also influences cellular glucose uptake. A recent study in our laboratory shows that exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to chromium picolinate (CrPic, 10 nM) induces a loss of plasma membrane cholesterol.

Author(s): 
Pattar, Guruprasad R.
Tackett, Lixuan
Liu, Ping
Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)

Previously, we found that a loss of plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-regulated filamentous actin (F-actin) structure contributes to insulin-induced insulin resistance. Interestingly, we also demonstrated that chromium picolinate (CrPic), a dietary supplement thought to improve glycemic status in insulin-resistant individuals, augments insulin-regulated glucose transport in insulin-sensitive 3T3-L1 adipocytes by lowering PM cholesterol.

Author(s): 
Horvath, Emily M.
Tackett, Lixuan
McCarthy, Alicia M.
Raman, Priya
Brozinick, Joseph T.
Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.
Publication Title: 
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

We recently found that chromium picolinate (CrPic), a nutritional supplement thought to improve insulin sensitivity in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance, enhances insulin action by lowering plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol. Recent in vivo studies suggest that cholesterol-lowering statin drugs benefit insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant patients, yet a mechanism is unknown. We report here that atorvastatin (ATV) diminished PM cholesterol by 22% (P<0.05) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. As documented for CrPic, this small reduction in PM cholesterol enhanced insulin action.

Author(s): 
Horvath, Emily M.
Tackett, Lixuan
Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.
Publication Title: 
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders

BACKGROUND: The use of chromium-containing dietary supplements is widespread among patients with type 2 diabetes. Chromium's effects in patients at high risk for developing diabetes, especially those with metabolic syndrome, is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on glucose metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome. METHOD: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted at a U.S. academic medical center.

Author(s): 
Iqbal, Nayyar
Cardillo, Serena
Volger, Sheri
Bloedon, Leanne T.
Anderson, Richard A.
Boston, Raymond
Szapary, Philippe O.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacological reports: PR

Chromium picolinate [Cr(pic)(3)] is a nutritional supplement widely promoted to exert beneficial metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance. Frequent comorbidities in these individuals include systemic hypertension, abnormal vascular function and ischemic heart disease, but information on the effects of the supplement on these aspects is sparse. Utilizing male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we examined the potential impact of Cr(pic)(3) on blood pressure, vascular reactivity and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).

Author(s): 
Abebe, Worku
Liu, Jun Yao
Wimborne, Hereward
Mozaffari, Mahmood S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine: Official Publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a prevalent disorder characterized as marked insulin resistance and low grade inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that obesity upregulates inflammatory markers in the submandibular gland in association with derangements of its architecture and pre-disposition to caries in obese Zucker rats (OZR). We also examined the potential impact of chromium picolinate (Cr(Pic)3), a nutritional supplement suggested to improve glycemic control, on the aforementioned parameters.

Author(s): 
Mozaffari, Mahmood S.
Abdelsayed, Rafik
Zakhary, Ibrahim
El-Salanty, Mohammed
Liu, Jun Yao
Wimborne, Hereward
El-Marakby, Ahmed
Publication Title: 
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

OBJECTIVE: Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential micronutrient. Findings since the 1950s suggest that Cr3+ might benefit cholesterol homeostasis. Here we present mechanistic evidence in support of this role of Cr3+. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol generation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which are rendered ineffective by the hyperinsulinemia that is known to accompany disorders of lipid metabolism, was corrected by Cr3+.

Author(s): 
Sealls, Whitney
Penque, Brent A.
Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.
Publication Title: 
Infectious Disorders Drug Targets

AIMS: Global figures clearly demonstrate inadequacy of current diabetes care: every 10 seconds one patient dies of diabetes-related pathologies. Nephropathy is the leading secondary complication of the disease. Nutritional supplement by chromium-picolinate is assumed to have beneficial therapeutic effects. However, potential toxic effects reported increase concerns about safety of chromium-picolinate.

Author(s): 
Yeghiazaryan, Kristina
Peeva, Viktoriya
Shenoy, Aparna
Schild, Hans H.
Golubnitschaja, Olga

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