Picrotoxin

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Laryngology and Otology

OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence surrounding the use of certain complementary supplements in otolaryngology. We specifically focussed on four commonly used supplements: spirulina, Ginkgo biloba, Vertigoheel and nutritional supplements (cod liver oil, multivitamins and pineapple enzyme). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the English and foreign language literature. INCLUSION CRITERIA: in vivo human studies. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: animal trials, in vitro studies and case reports.

Author(s): 
Karkos, P. D.
Leong, S. C.
Arya, A. K.
Papouliakos, S. M.
Apostolidou, M. T.
Issing, W. J.
Publication Title: 
Arzneimittel-Forschung

The increasing interest in alternative medical practices has led to a number of controlled studies on herbal and homeopathic agents. This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis of four recent clinical trials evaluating the homeopathic preparation Vertigoheel (VH) compared with usual therapies (betahistine, Ginkgo biloba extract, dimenhydrinate) for vertigo in a total of 1388 patients. Two trials were observational studies and the other two were randomised double-blind controlled trials. The duration of treatment (6-8 weeks) and dosage were comparable in all studies.

Author(s): 
Schneider, Berthold
Klein, Peter
Weiser, Michael
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Laryngology and Otology

OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence surrounding the use of certain complementary supplements in otolaryngology. We specifically focussed on four commonly used supplements: spirulina, Ginkgo biloba, Vertigoheel and nutritional supplements (cod liver oil, multivitamins and pineapple enzyme). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the English and foreign language literature. INCLUSION CRITERIA: in vivo human studies. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: animal trials, in vitro studies and case reports.

Author(s): 
Karkos, P. D.
Leong, S. C.
Arya, A. K.
Papouliakos, S. M.
Apostolidou, M. T.
Issing, W. J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Laryngology and Otology

OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence surrounding the use of certain complementary supplements in otolaryngology. We specifically focussed on four commonly used supplements: spirulina, Ginkgo biloba, Vertigoheel and nutritional supplements (cod liver oil, multivitamins and pineapple enzyme). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the English and foreign language literature. INCLUSION CRITERIA: in vivo human studies. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: animal trials, in vitro studies and case reports.

Author(s): 
Karkos, P. D.
Leong, S. C.
Arya, A. K.
Papouliakos, S. M.
Apostolidou, M. T.
Issing, W. J.
Publication Title: 
Neuropharmacology

The effect of the GABAA antagonists, bicuculline and picrotoxin, in the hot plate and writhing tests in mice and the paw-pressure test in rats was assessed. Subconvulsant doses of bicuculline (1.3-4 mumol kg-1, s.c.) or picrotoxin (0.8-2.5 mumol kg-1, s.c.) induced a dose-related increase in latency of licking in the hot plate test in mice, whereas subconvulsant doses of strychnine and thiosemicarbazide (0.9 and 6 mg kg-1, s.c. respectively), did not modify the threshold to thermal stimuli in mice.

Author(s): 
Malcangio, M.
Malmberg-Aiello, P.
Giotti, A.
Ghelardini, C.
Bartolini, A.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Goodyerin is a flavonol glycoside isolated from the whole plants of Goodyera schlechtendaliana which has been used as a substitute for the crude drug, Anoectochilus formosanus. The pharmacological properties of goodyerin were assayed for effects on spontaneous locomotor activity, on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, and on anticonvulsant activity against picrotoxin-induced seizures in rodents. Goodyerin exhibited a significant and dose-dependent sedative and anticonvulsant effect.

Author(s): 
Du, Xiao-Ming
Sun, Ning-Yi
Takizawa, Nanako
Guo, Yong-Tian
Shoyama, Yukihiro
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

Strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors (GlyR) play a major role in the excitability of CNS neurons and are also a major target of many drugs including some general anesthetics and ethanol. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is an important substrate responsible for cognitive function and for sedation, as well as hypnosis (unconsciousness) which is induced by general anesthetics and ethanol. However, the functions and the physiological and pharmacological properties of GlyRs in mature PFC neurons have not been well studied.

Author(s): 
Lu, Yongli
Ye, Jiang-Hong
Publication Title: 
Behavioural Pharmacology

To characterize the sedative and hypnotic profile of the novel adenosine derivative ((3S,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(6-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)amino)-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl) methyl diaconate (WS0701), we performed a variety of behavioural tests and investigated the influence of WS0701 on various sleep stages. In mice, WS0701 significantly increased the number of entries and time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating an anxiolytic effect.

Author(s): 
Bai, Xiao-Yu
Zhang, Xue-Qiong
Zhang, Yong-He
Wu, Song
Hao, Ling-Hua
Liu, Rui
Huang, Zhong-Lin
Zhang, Wei-Ku
Sun, Zong-Miao
Du, Guan-hua
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

The present study was performed to evaluate the central nervous system inhibitory effects of the essential oil from SuHeXiang Wan (Storax pill), a prescription usually used for treating epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine, on fragrance inhalation (aroma therapy). Preinhalation of the fragrance oil markedly delayed the appearance of pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion, but showed weak activities on picrotoxin- and strychnine-induced convulsions, which implies this drug may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

Author(s): 
Koo, Byung-Soo
Lee, Seung-Il
Ha, Jeoung-Hee
Lee, Dong-Ung
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Chinese Medicine

The plant Withania somnifera (WS), also known as Ashwagandha, has been used widely in traditional medicine systems in India and Nepal (Ayurveda), and has been accepted to cure various ailments. In this study, the whole-cell patch clamp technique was performed to examine the mechanism of action of WS on the SG neurons of the Vc from mouse brainstem slices. In whole-cell patch clamp mode, methanol extract of Withania somnifera (mWS) induced short-lived and repeatable inward currents in all SG neurons tested (31.3 ± 8.51 pA, n = 7) using a high chloride pipette solution.

Author(s): 
Yin, Hua
Cho, Dong Hyu
Park, Soo Joung
Han, Seong Kyu

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