Placebos

Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Clinical Psychology

PURPOSE: An emerging body of evidence has shown the therapeutic effect of both mindful and non-mindful physical exercises on the treatment of depression. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of mindful and non-mindful physical exercises as an intervention in managing depression or depressive symptoms based on a systematic literature review. METHODS: Our review was conducted among five electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which tested the effects of mindful or/and non-mindful physical exercises on depression.

Author(s): 
Tsang, Hector W. H.
Chan, Edward P.
Cheung, W. M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of any organic cause. Despite its prevalence, there remains a significant lack of efficient medical treatment for IBS to date. However, according to some previous research studies, hypnosis has been shown to be effective in the treatment of IBS. AIM: To determine the definite efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

Author(s): 
Gholamrezaei, Ali
Ardestani, Samaneh Khanpour
Emami, Mohammad Hasan
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis

Meta-analyses consistently reveal that most of the response to antidepressant treatment can be obtained by placebo, and the difference between response to the drug and the response to any treatment is not clinically significant for most individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, the best predictor of antidepressant efficacy is the response to placebo during the so-called placebo run-in period. It can also be shown that a significant portion of the placebo effect is expectancy. These data thus indicate that suggestion is a central factor in treating depression.

Author(s): 
Kirsch, Irving
Low, Carol B.
Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Up to 18% of people in industrialised societies are mildly affected by chronic tinnitus, and 0.5% report tinnitus having a severe effect on their daily life. Tinnitus can be associated with hearing loss, acoustic neuromas, drug toxicity, ear diseases, and depression. Tinnitus can last for many years, and can interfere with sleep and concentration. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for chronic tinnitus?

Author(s): 
Savage, Julian
Cook, Stephanie
Waddell, Angus
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

We investigated the influence of indicators of methodological quality on study outcome in a set of 89 placebo-controlled clinical trials of homoeopathy in three different ways: (1) The results of studies meeting single criteria (explicit statement of random allocation, allocation concealment, double-blinding, completeness of follow-up) of methodological quality were compared with those of studies not meeting the criteria in univariate and multivariate analyses; (2) The results of studies scoring above and below predefined scores in two quality assessment scales were compared; (3) Primary st

Author(s): 
Linde, K.
Scholz, M.
Ramirez, G.
Clausius, N.
Melchart, D.
Jonas, W. B.
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

BACKGROUND: The claims made for the clinical effects of homeopathy are controversial. The results of several meta-analyses of clinical trials are positive, but they fail in general to highlight specific medical conditions that respond well to homeopathy.

Author(s): 
Mathie, R. T.
Publication Title: 
Complementary Therapies in Medicine

BACKGROUND: Veterinary homeopathy has led a somewhat shadowy existence since its first introduction. Only in the last three decades has the number of clinical trials increased considerably. This literature is generally not well perceived, which may be partly a consequence of the diffuse and somewhat inaccessible nature of some of the relevant research publications. The Veterinary Clinical Research Database for Homeopathy (VetCR) was launched in 2006 to provide information on existing clinical research in veterinary homeopathy and to facilitate the preparation of systematic reviews.

Author(s): 
Clausen, J.
Albrecht, H.
Mathie, R. T.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Rheumatology

Homoeopathy is often advocated for fibromyalgia (FM) and many FM patients use it. To critically evaluate all randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of homoeopathy as a treatment for FM, six electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant studies. Data extraction and the assessment of the methodological quality of all included studies were done by two independent reviewers. Four RCTs were found, including two feasibility studies. Three studies were placebo-controlled. None of the trials was without serious flaws.

Author(s): 
Perry, Rachel
Terry, Rohini
Ernst, Edzard
Publication Title: 
Complementary Therapies in Medicine

BACKGROUND: To date, our programme of systematic reviews has assessed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of individualised homeopathy separately for risk of bias (RoB) and for model validity of homeopathic treatment (MVHT). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present paper was to bring together our published RoB and MVHT findings and, using an approach based on GRADE methods, to merge the quality appraisals of these same RCTs, examining the impact on meta-analysis results. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis.

Author(s): 
Mathie, Robert T.
Van Wassenhoven, Michel
Jacobs, Jennifer
Oberbaum, Menachem
Frye, Joyce
Manchanda, Raj K.
Roniger, Helmut
Dantas, Flávio
Legg, Lynn A.
Clausen, Jürgen
Moss, Sian
Davidson, Jonathan R. T.
Lloyd, Suzanne M.
Ford, Ian
Fisher, Peter
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

BACKGROUND: Though potentially an important limitation in the literature of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of homeopathy, the model validity of homeopathic treatment (MVHT) has not previously been systematically investigated. OBJECTIVE: As an integral part of a programme of systematic reviews, to assess MVHT of eligible RCTs of individualised homeopathic treatment. METHODS: From 46 previously identified papers in the category, 31 papers (reporting a total of 32 RCTs) were eligible for systematic review and were thus the subject of the study.

Author(s): 
Mathie, Robert T.
Van Wassenhoven, Michel
Jacobs, Jennifer
Oberbaum, Menachem
Roniger, Helmut
Frye, Joyce
Manchanda, Raj K.
Terzan, Laurence
Chaufferin, Gilles
Dantas, Flávio
Fisher, Peter

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