Plant Diseases

Publication Title: 
Acta Virologica

Our recent results on the plum pox virus (PPV) epidemiology show that PPV spreads very rapidly in plum tree plantations in the contaminated areas. A clearing of the PPV-infected trees reduces significantly the spread of the virus but does not eliminate the disease. Some plum tree cultivars, hybrids and rootstocks (Scoldus, Alina, Cristi, BN 1/8Fl, BN 2Gr. etc) showing field resistance could not be infected with PPV by natural way. However, they could be infected with PPV by artificial inoculation except for the plum tree cv.

Author(s): 
Minoiu, N.
Maxim, A.
Vladianu, D.
Platon, I.
Balaci, R.
Publication Title: 
Acta Virologica

The relative concentration of plum pox virus (PPV) in leaves and flowers of plum, damson, myrobalan, blackthorn, apricot and peach trees was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and expressed as the lowest dilution with positive reaction. Significant differences in relative PPV concentration were found in leaves among individual Prunus species naturally or artificially infected with the virus. The highest relative PPV concentration was found in blackthorns (7.81 x 10(-4)), common plum and apricot (1.56 x 10(-3) for the both latters).

Author(s): 
Polák, J.
Publication Title: 
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik

Prunus species express different ranges and levels of resistance to the root-knot nematodes (RKN) Meloidogyne spp. In Myrobalan plum ( Prunus cerasifera), the dominant Ma gene confers a high-level and wide-spectrum resistance to the predominant RKN, Meloidogyne arenaria, Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica and the isolate Meloidogyne sp. Florida which overcomes the resistance of the Amygdalus sources. In Japanese plum ( Prunus salicina), a similar wide-spectrum dominant resistance gene, termed R(jap), has been hypothesized from an intraspecific segregating cross.

Author(s): 
Claverie, M.
Bosselut, N.
Lecouls, A. C.
Voisin, R.
Lafargue, B.
Poizat, C.
Kleinhentz, M.
Laigret, F.
Dirlewanger, E.
Esmenjaud, D.
Publication Title: 
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik

Inheritance and linkage studies were carried out with microsatellite [or simple sequence repeat (SSR)] markers in a F(1) progeny including 101 individuals of a cross between Myrobalan plum ( Prunus cerasifera Ehrh) clone P.2175 and the almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.)-peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch) hybrid clone GN22 ["Garfi" (G) almond x "Nemared" (N) peach].

Author(s): 
Dirlewanger, E.
Cosson, P.
Howad, W.
Capdeville, G.
Bosselut, N.
Claverie, M.
Voisin, R.
Poizat, C.
Lafargue, B.
Baron, O.
Laigret, F.
Kleinhentz, M.
Arús, P.
Esmenjaud, D.
Publication Title: 
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik

The Ma gene for root-knot nematode (RKN)resistance from Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera L.)confers a complete-spectrum and a heat-stable resistance to Meloidogvne spp., conversely to Mi-I from tomato,which has a more restricted spectrum and a reduced efficiency at high temperature. This gene was identified from a perennial self-incompatible near-wild rootstock species and lies in cosegregation with the SCAR marker SCAFLP2 on the Prunus linkage group 7 in a 2.3 cM interval between the SCAR SCAL19 and SSR pchgms6 markers.

Author(s): 
Claverie, M.
Dirlewanger, E.
Cosson, P.
Bosselut, N.
Lecouls, A. C.
Voisin, R.
Kleinhentz, M.
Lafargue, B.
Caboche, M.
Chalhoub, B.
Esmenjaud, D.
Publication Title: 
Plant Cell Reports

Resistant rootstocks offer an alternative to pesticides for the control of soil pests. In Prunus spp., resistance loci to root-knot nematodes (RKN) have been mapped and a transformation method is needed to validate candidate genes. Our efforts have focused on the generation of transformed hairy-roots and composite plants appropriate for nematode infection assays. An efficient and reliable method using the A4R strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the transformation of Prunus roots with an Egfp reporter gene is given.

Author(s): 
Bosselut, Nathalie
Van Ghelder, Cyril
Claverie, Michel
Voisin, Roger
Onesto, Jean-Paul
Rosso, Marie-Noëlle
Esmenjaud, Daniel
Publication Title: 
Plant Physiology

Root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne species are major polyphagous pests of most crops worldwide, and cultivars with durable resistance are urgently needed because of nematicide bans. The Ma gene from the Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera) confers complete-spectrum, heat-stable, and high-level resistance to RKN, which is remarkable in comparison with the Mi-1 gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the sole RKN resistance gene cloned. We report here the positional cloning and the functional validation of the Ma locus present at the heterozygous state in the P.2175 accession.

Author(s): 
Claverie, Michel
Dirlewanger, Elisabeth
Bosselut, Nathalie
Van Ghelder, Cyril
Voisin, Roger
Kleinhentz, Marc
Lafargue, Bernard
Abad, Pierre
Rosso, Marie-Noëlle
Chalhoub, Boulos
Esmenjaud, Daniel
Publication Title: 
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes (Liliaceae) also known as 'Safed Musli' is a traditional rare Indian medicinal herb which has many therapeutic applications in Ayurvedic, Unani, Homeopathic and Allopathic system of medicine. Its roots (tubers) are widely used for various therapeutic applications.

Author(s): 
Thakur, Gulab Singh
Bag, Manoranjan
Sanodiya, Bhagwan S.
Debnath, Mousumi
Zacharia, Anish
Bhadauriya, Pratiksha
Prasad, G. B. K. S.
Bisen, P. S.
Publication Title: 
Forschende Komplementärmedizin (2006)

A series of experiments, performed on plant models with ultra high dilutions (UHD) of arsenic trioxide at 45th decimal potency has been reviewed with a particular focus on variability. The working variables considered are: the number of germinated seeds out of a fixed set of 33, the stem length of wheat seedlings and the number of necrotic lesions in tobacco leaf disks inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV).

Author(s): 
Nani, Daniele
Brizzi, Maurizio
Lazzarato, Lisa
Betti, Lucietta
Publication Title: 
Journal of Microbiology (Seoul, Korea)

Poria cocos, a famous traditional Chinese medicine, was found to have nematicidal activity in experiments searching for nematicidal fungi. The experiment showed it could kill 94.9% of the saprophytic nematode, Panagrellus redivivue, 92.6% of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, and 93.5% of the pine nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, on PDA plate within 12 hours.

Author(s): 
Li, Guo Hong
Shen, Yue Mao
Zhang, Ke Qin

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