Plant Gums

Publication Title: 
Complementary Therapies in Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the scientific evidence on guggul for hyperlipidemia including expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing. METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in nine databases, 20 additional journals (not indexed in common databases), and bibliographies from 50 selected secondary references. No restrictions were placed on language or quality of publications.

Author(s): 
Ulbricht, Catherine
Basch, Ethan
Szapary, Philippe
Hammerness, Paul
Axentsev, Serguei
Boon, Heather
Kroll, David
Garraway, Levi
Vora, Mamta
Woods, Jen
Natural Standard Research Collaboration
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The oleo gum resin of Gardenia lucida is commonly employed in traditional medicine to treat multiple ailments, including epilepsy and mania. The essential oil isolated from it was screened for CNS activities to check if it is responsible for the claims made regarding the traditional use of the oleo gum resin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hypnotic and anticonvulsant activity was assessed by pentobarbitone induced hypnosis and convulsant models-Maximum electroshock (MES) and Pentylene tetrazole (PTZ) respectively.

Author(s): 
Shareef, Mohammad Zubair
Yellu, Narsimha Reddy
Achanta, Venkata Narsimha Appa Rao
Publication Title: 
Anticancer Research

Identification of active principles and their molecular targets from traditional medicine is an enormous opportunity for modern drug development. Gum resin from Commiphora wightii (syn C. mukul) has been used for centuries in Ayurveda to treat internal tumors, obesity, liver disorders, malignant sores and ulcers, urinary complaints, intestinal worms, leucoderma (vitiligo), sinuses, edema and sudden paralytic seizures. Guggulsterone has been identified as one of the major active components of this gum resin.

Author(s): 
Shishodia, Shishir
Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.
Dass, Suchismita
Ramawat, Krishan G.
Aggarwal, Bharat B.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Pharmacology

Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC(50) of ∼1 μM (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone.

Author(s): 
Xiao, Dong
Zeng, Yan
Prakash, Lakshmi
Badmaev, Vladmir
Majeed, Muhammed
Singh, Shivendra V.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Prevention Research (Philadelphia, Pa.)

Chemoprevention of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), a disease associated with high mortality rates and frequent occurrence of second primary tumor (SPT), is an important clinical goal. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 signaling pathway is known to play a key role in HNSCC growth, survival, and prognosis, thereby serving as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of HNSCC.

Author(s): 
Leeman-Neill, Rebecca J.
Seethala, Raja R.
Singh, Shivendra V.
Freilino, Maria L.
Bednash, Joseph S.
Thomas, Sufi M.
Panahandeh, Mary C.
Gooding, William E.
Joyce, Sonali C.
Lingen, Mark W.
Neill, Daniel B.
Grandis, Jennifer R.
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Regardless of the availability of therapeutic options, the overall 5-year survival for patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer remains less than 5%. Gum resins from Boswellia species, also known as frankincense, have been used as a major ingredient in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of health-related conditions. Both frankincense chemical extracts and essential oil prepared from Boswellia species gum resins exhibit anti-neoplastic activity, and have been investigated as potential anti-cancer agents.

Author(s): 
Ni, Xiao
Suhail, Mahmoud M.
Yang, Qing
Cao, Amy
Fung, Kar-Ming
Postier, Russell G.
Woolley, Cole
Young, Gary
Zhang, Jingzhe
Lin, Hsueh-Kung
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: z-Guggulsterone (z-Gug) and Gugulipid (GL) have been used to treat a variety of ailments. We now report their anti-cancer effect and mechanism against human breast cancer. METHODS: Using the human estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and triple-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells as well as the normal human mammary epithelial cell line (HMEC), we evaluated the anti-breast-cancer efficacy and apoptosis inducing activity of GL. We determined the cellular and molecular mechanism of GL-inhibited breast cancer cell growth.

Author(s): 
Jiang, Guoqin
Xiao, Xiao
Zeng, Yan
Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam
Majeed, Muhammed
Xiao, Dong
Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Nutrition

The resin of the Commiphora mukul tree has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for more than 2000 years to treat a variety of ailments. Studies in both animal models and humans have shown that this resin, termed gum guggul, can decrease elevated lipid levels. The stereoisomers E- and Z-guggulsterone have been identified as the active agents in this resin. Recent studies have shown that these compounds are antagonist ligands for the bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is an important regulator of cholesterol homeostasis.

Author(s): 
Urizar, Nancy L.
Moore, David D.
Publication Title: 
Complementary Therapies in Medicine

BACKGROUND: Guggul, herbal extract from resin of the Commiphora mukul tree, is widely used in Asia as a cholesterol-lowering agent based on Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Its popularity for this use is increasing in the US and Western Europe. Guggulsterones, the presumed bioactive compounds of guggul, may antagonise two nuclear hormone receptors involved in cholesterol metabolism, which is a possible explanation for hypolipidemic effects of these extracts. However, publications of efficacy data on the use of guggul extracts in Western populations are scarce.

Author(s): 
Nohr, Lise Anett
Rasmussen, Lars Bjørn
Straand, Jørund
Publication Title: 
Anticancer Research

Identification of active principles and their molecular targets from traditional medicine is an enormous opportunity for modern drug development. Gum resin from Commiphora wightii (syn C. mukul) has been used for centuries in Ayurveda to treat internal tumors, obesity, liver disorders, malignant sores and ulcers, urinary complaints, intestinal worms, leucoderma (vitiligo), sinuses, edema and sudden paralytic seizures. Guggulsterone has been identified as one of the major active components of this gum resin.

Author(s): 
Shishodia, Shishir
Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.
Dass, Suchismita
Ramawat, Krishan G.
Aggarwal, Bharat B.

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