Our recent results on the plum pox virus (PPV) epidemiology show that PPV spreads very rapidly in plum tree plantations in the contaminated areas. A clearing of the PPV-infected trees reduces significantly the spread of the virus but does not eliminate the disease. Some plum tree cultivars, hybrids and rootstocks (Scoldus, Alina, Cristi, BN 1/8Fl, BN 2Gr. etc) showing field resistance could not be infected with PPV by natural way. However, they could be infected with PPV by artificial inoculation except for the plum tree cv.
The antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of Terminalis chebula Retz., Sanguisorba officinalis L., Rubus coreanus Miq. and Rheum palmatum L. were examined by a cell culture system using a hepatitis B virus (HBV) producing cell line, HepG2 2.2.15. The extracts were assayed for the inhibition of HBV multiplication by measurement of HBV DNA and surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in the extracellular medium of HepG2 2.2.15 cells after an 8-day treatment.
Two Prunus rootstocks, the Myrobalan plum P 2175 and the interspecific peach-almond hybrid, Felinem, were studied to characterize their biochemical and molecular responses induced under iron-Deficient conditions. Plants of both genotypes were submitted to different treatments using a hydroponic system that permitted removal of Fe from the nutrient solution.
Resistant rootstocks offer an alternative to pesticides for the control of soil pests. In Prunus spp., resistance loci to root-knot nematodes (RKN) have been mapped and a transformation method is needed to validate candidate genes. Our efforts have focused on the generation of transformed hairy-roots and composite plants appropriate for nematode infection assays. An efficient and reliable method using the A4R strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the transformation of Prunus roots with an Egfp reporter gene is given.
The Ma gene from Myrobalan plum is a TNL gene that confers a high-level resistance to all root-knot nematodes of major economic importance, including Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. enterolobii. The nematode behavior in the roots and the corresponding histological mechanisms of the Ma resistance to M.
Root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne species are major polyphagous pests of most crops worldwide, and cultivars with durable resistance are urgently needed because of nematicide bans. The Ma gene from the Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera) confers complete-spectrum, heat-stable, and high-level resistance to RKN, which is remarkable in comparison with the Mi-1 gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the sole RKN resistance gene cloned. We report here the positional cloning and the functional validation of the Ma locus present at the heterozygous state in the P.2175 accession.
Waterlogging is associated with poor soil drainage. As a consequence oxygen levels decrease in the root environment inducing root asphyxia and affecting plant growth. Some plants can survive under these conditions triggering complex anatomical and biochemical adaptations, mostly in the roots.
Medicinal plants are a rich source of ligands for nuclear receptors. The present study was aimed to screen a collection of plant extracts for PPAR?/?-activating properties and identify the active extract that can stimulate cellular glucose uptake without enhancing the adipogenesis. A reporter gene assay was performed to screen ethanolic extracts of 263 plant species, belonging to 94 families, for activation of PPAR? and PPAR?. Eight extracts showed activation of PPAR?, while 22 extracts showed activation of PPAR?.
Four new partially acylated tetrasaccharides of 11-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (1-4) were isolated from a methanolic extract of Ipomoea tyrianthina. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The resin glycoside composition of I. tyrianthina varied with the location of growth in Mexico.
The effects of annomontine, a pyrimidine- ?-carboline alkaloid isolated from the root of ANNONA PURPUREA, on anxiety was studied in mice using the elevated plus-maze. The behavioral effects of this alkaloid on the pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, the locomotor activity in an open field, and the motor coordination in the rotarod test were also evaluated. The intraperitoneal injection of annomontine (1-30 mg/kg) increased in a dose-dependent way the number of visits to and the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze in comparison to the control animals.