BACKGROUND: Ayurveda represents the traditional medicine system of India. Since mechanistic details of therapy in terms of current biology are not available in Ayurvedic literature, modern scientific studies are necessary to understand its major concepts and procedures. It is necessary to examine effects of the whole Ayurvedic formulations rather than their "active" components as is done in most current studies.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multifactorial disease marked by extensive neuropathology in the brain with selective yet prominent and progressive loss of mid-brain dopaminergic neurons. The etiological factors involved in the development of PD are still elusive, but oxidative stress arising when reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceed amounts required for normal redox signaling is considered one of the major factors. ROS cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA and are one of the most prominent factors related to neurodegeneration.
BACKGROUND: In studies from Italy and Greece, a Mediterranean dietary pattern was shown to favorably affect life expectancy in the elderly population. This pattern is thought to reduce the risk of cancer in addition to being cardioprotective.
This paper is intended to serve as a traditional Tibetan medical response to advancements in basic longevity research, with particular attention to current models of caloric restriction. This is a complicated task, as Tibetan medicine traditionally approaches dietary modification from a radically different perspective, and relies upon a complex model of health and balance in the treatment and prevention of disease. This paper offers a brief overview of the traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) model and suggests potential areas for collaborative research on dietary modification.
European Neuropsychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has increased markedly over the past decades. To date however, a comprehensive review of herbal antidepressant, anxiolytic and hypnotic psychopharmacology and applications in depression, anxiety and insomnia has been absent. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to February 21st 2011) on commonly used psychotropic herbal medicines.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The health of nineteenth century Brazilians is only alluded to in historical documents, and researchers still have much to discover. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to show the medicinal plants used in the 19th century in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To this end, information was obtained from the prescription book deposited in the archive of the Monastery of Saint Benedict in Olinda, Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, about the daily use of medicinal plants.
The nightshades (solanaceae) were used as intoxicants since the ancient civilizations and are still in use today. Their alkaloids, atropine and scopolamine, were the major active substances of the ointments of witches, of medieval "anaesthetics", and of modern poisons for murder. In a medium dose-range the predominant symptoms are hallucinations and illusions. This explains the use of nightshades in fortune-telling and religious rituals. In higher doses the alkaloids produce coma and apnea. Scopolamine enjoyed a particular popularity as a poison for murder.
The known sesquiterpene valeranone (= Yatamanson) was isolated from the subterranian parts of Nardostachys yatamansi (DC). It was pharmacologically investigated in animal experiments of sedative, tranquilizing and antihypertensive properties. In some experiments, typical for tranquilizers, certain activities could be demonstrated such as the prolongation of barbiturate hypnosis, the impairment of rotarod performance, an anticonvulsive activity on electric shock and potentiation of the body-temperature lowering activity of reserpine.
The strong activity of the patient is significant in traditional Digo ritual therapy. In contrast to Sharmanism, he, and not the healer, plays the main role. The Digo healer applies hypnosis, somatiic exercises, stimulating music, and drugs in his three-day ritual performed mainly for psychosomatic and chronic illness.