BACKGROUND: Nepal is very rich in biodiversity, and no extensive effort has yet been carried out to screen plants that are used by traditional healers against parasitic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antileishmanial and antimalarial activity of crude methanolic or ethanolic extracts of 29 plant species that are currently used by local people of Nepal for treating different ailments.
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Ultrastructural changes in Plasmodium gallinaceum oocysts and sporozoites were studies after 5 antimalarials (pyrimethamine, primaquine, artemisinine, 5-p-fluorobenzoxyl-primaquine citrate and nitroquine) were administered to Aedes albopictus. Obvious disfigurement, such as abnormal vacuoles of various sizes in the cytoplasma, thickened oocyst capsules and damaged sporozoite pellical membranes were found in many oocysts and sporozoites in the mosquitoes.
The emergence and spread of drug-resistant malaria parasites is the major threat to effective malaria control. So far, malaria control has relied heavily on a restricted number of chemically related drugs belonging to either the quinoline or the antifolate groups. Only recently have the artemisinin-type compounds been used widely, predominantly in Southeast Asia. Experience has shown that resistance eventually curtails the life span of antimalarial drugs. If measures are not applied to contain resistance, the investment put into the development of new drugs will be squandered.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Heme alkylation by the antimalarial drug artemisinin is reported in vivo, within infected mice that have been treated at pharmacologically relevant doses. Adducts resulting from the alkylation of heme by the drug were characterized in the spleen of treated mice, and their glucuroconjugated derivatives were present in the urine. Because these heme-artemisinin adducts were not observed in noninfected mice, this report confirms that the alkylating activity of this antimalarial drug is related to the presence of the parasite in infected animals.
Pharmacovigilance, defined as "the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other possible drug related problem", is increasingly being recognized in Africa. Many African countries have simultaneously adopted artemisinin derivative based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, offering an opportunity to assess the safety of these drugs when used widely.
We undertook a trial of artesunate + amodiaquine (AS + AQ) and artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP) in 180 children of age 6-59 months with uncomplicated malaria in Democratic Republic of Congo. Children were randomly allocated to receive 3 days observed treatment of AS + AQ (n = 90) or 3 days of AS + SP (n = 90). Primary efficacy outcomes were 28-day parasite recurrence rates, and recrudescence rates were adjusted by genotyping to distinguish new infection and recrudescence.
Malaria is the world's most important parasitic infection ranking among the major health and developmental challenges. Despite years of continual efforts, malaria is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality affecting third-world countries and still a threat to over 2 billion people, representing approximately 40% of the world's population in about 100 countries (Rollback Malaria 2005). During the "eradication era", half a century ago, malaria was eliminated or effectively suppressed in many parts of the world, particularly subtropical regions.
Trioxaquines, potential antimalarial agents, and heme-artemisinin adducts, resulting from the alkylation of heme by artemisinin, were evaluated as inhibitors of beta-hematin formation in 10 M acetate medium at pH 5.
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are increasingly being considered for routine use in Africa. However, many RDTs are available and selecting the ideal test for a particular setting is challenging. The appropriateness of RDT choice depends in part on patient population and epidemiological setting, and on decision makers' priorities. The model presented (available online) can be used by decision makers to evaluate alternative RDTs and assess the circumstances under which their use is justified on economic grounds.
BACKGROUND: This study examines the diagnosis of malaria and pattern of prescription of antimalarial drugs in the most vulnerable age group (the under 5 children) in the study environment in order to identify the possible shortcomings and suggest solutions so as to improve the treatment outcome in future. METHODS: The hospital records of 430 children with malaria infection admitted for treatment in a chosen tertiary health facility between January to December 2005 were selected for study. Forty-eight case records were excluded due to incomplete information.