Plasmodium vivax

Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

To investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of artesunate (ARTS) and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in Plasmodium vivax infections, 12 male Vietnamese adults with slide-positive vivax malaria received either intravenous ARTS (120 mg; group 1) or oral ARTS (100 mg; group 2) with the alternative preparation given 8 hr later in a randomized, open, cross-over study.

Author(s): 
Batty, K. T.
Le, A. T.
Ilett, K. F.
Nguyen, P. T.
Powell, S. M.
Nguyen, C. H.
Truong, X. M.
Vuong, V. C.
Huynh, V. T.
Tran, Q. B.
Nguyen, V. M.
Davis, T. M.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

To define the current efficacy of Fansidar (F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel Switzerland) (pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine), primaquine in a high dose, and artesunate for treating acute Plasmodium vivax malaria, we conducted a comparative clinical trial of these 3 drugs in an open-label study. Patients (15-65 years old) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments regimens in a serial order. Ninety percent of the patients were infected at Thailand-Myanmar border.

Author(s): 
Wilairatana, P.
Silachamroon, U.
Krudsood, S.
Singhasivanon, P.
Treeprasertsuk, S.
Bussaratid, V.
Phumratanaprapin, W.
Srivilirit, S.
Looareesuwan, S.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax has not yet occurred in Vietnam. The efficacy of artemisinin for P. vivax was not established. We conducted a double-blind randomized study involving 240 inpatients with P. vivax malaria who received artemisinin (40 mg/kg over 3 days) plus placebo chloroquine (Art) or chloroquine (25 mg/kg over 3 days) plus placebo artemisinin (Chl). Patients were followed up with weekly blood smears for 28 days. In each group 113 cases were analysed. All patients recovered rapidly.

Author(s): 
Phan, Giao T.
de Vries, Peter J.
Tran, Binh Q.
Le, Hung Q.
Nguyen, Nam V.
Nguyen, Thang V.
Heisterkamp, Siem H.
Kager, Piet A.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Artemisinin-derivative combination therapies (ACT) are highly efficacious against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Few efficacy data, however, are available for vivax malaria. With high rates of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in both vivax and falciparum malaria in Papua Province, Indonesia, new combination therapies are required for both species. We recently found artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (ART-SP) to be highly effective (96%) in the treatment of falciparum malaria in Papua Province.

Author(s): 
Tjitra, Emiliana
Baker, Joanne
Suprianto, Sri
Cheng, Qin
Anstey, Nicholas M.
Publication Title: 
Revista Da Sociedade Brasileira De Medicina Tropical

with the objective of evaluating shortened therapeutic outlines effective in vivax malaria treatment, we accomplished an open, prospective study allocating 234 patients with vivax malaria distributed at random into eight therapeutic groups. Six groups used oral arthemisin as blood esquizonticide at different doses for one day and the other two groups received chloroquine in a single dose. The primaquine was used as a hypnozoiticide in all groups. They received a daily dose of 30mg in the course of five or seven days in all groups.

Author(s): 
da Silva, Rita do Socorro Uchôa
Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves
Calvosa, Vanja Suely Pachiano
de Souza, José Maria
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The sporontocidal activity of tafenoquine (WR-238605) and artelinic acid was determined against naturally circulating isolates of Plasmodium vivax in western Thailand. Primaquine was used as a negative control and a dihydroacridine-dione (WR-250547) was used as a positive control. Laboratory-reared Anopheles dirus mosquitoes were infected with P. vivax by allowing mosquitoes to feed on blood (placed in an artificial-membrane feeding apparatus) collected from gametocytemic volunteers reporting to local malaria clinics in Tak province, Thailand.

Author(s): 
Ponsa, Narong
Sattabongkot, Jetsumon
Kittayapong, Pattamaporn
Eikarat, Nantana
Coleman, Russell E.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

We evaluated the ICT Malaria P.f./P.v. immunochromatographic test for the detection of the panmalarial antigen (PMA) using a rodent malaria model. Mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei by mosquito bite, and blood was examined by microscopy and the ICT test. Treatment with artemether was started when the parasite density exceeded 70,000/microL. The ICT PMA band appeared when the parasite density was more than 2,000/microL, but it continued to be positive after the parasitemia became negative in response to the drug treatment.

Author(s): 
Arai, Meiji
Ishii, Akira
Matsuoka, Hiroyuki
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The gametocidal activities of chloroquine and artesunate were compared. The relative risk (RR) of having detectable gametocytes appear after treatment initiation was lower in artesunate-treated patients (n = 792) than in chloroquine-treated patients (n = 695) (RR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.2 to 0.40; P < 0.0001). The duration and magnitude of gametocyte carriage were also lower for artesunate than chloroquine. By reducing the transmission of Plasmodium vivax to the vector, artesunate could therefore reduce the incidence of P. vivax malaria.

Author(s): 
Nacher, Mathieu
Silachamroon, Udomsak
Singhasivanon, Pratap
Wilairatana, Polrat
Phumratanaprapin, Weerapong
Fontanet, Arnaud
Looareesuwan, Sornchai
Publication Title: 
The Korean Journal of Parasitology

Liver function tests were performed in 61 vivax, 54 malariae and 15 ovale malaria patients who were admitted to Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases between 2001 and 2004. The objective of the study was to evaluate changes in hepatic biochemical indices before and after treatment with artemisinin derivatives. On admission and prior to treatment, hepatic dysfunction was found among the 3 groups. Serum liver function tests and physical examinations were performed weekly during the 28-day follow-up period.

Author(s): 
Tangpukdee, Noppadon
Thanachartwet, Vipa
Krudsood, Srivicha
Luplertlop, Nutthanej
Pornpininworakij, Karnchana
Chalermrut, Kobsiri
Phokham, Sasikarn
Kano, Shigeyuki
Looareesuwan, Sornchai
Wilairatana, Polrat
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

In a treatment re-infection study of 206 Papua New Guinean school children, we examined risk of reinfection and symptomatic malaria caused by different Plasmodium species. Although children acquired a similar number of polymerase chain reaction-detectable Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections in six months of active follow-up (P. falciparum = 5.00, P. vivax = 5.28), they were 21 times more likely to develop symptomatic P. falciparum malaria (1.17/year) than P. vivax malaria (0.06/year). Children greater than nine years of age had a reduced risk of acquiring P.

Author(s): 
Michon, Pascal
Cole-Tobian, Jennifer L.
Dabod, Elijah
Schoepflin, Sonja
Igu, Jennifer
Susapu, Melinda
Tarongka, Nandao
Zimmerman, Peter A.
Reeder, John C.
Beeson, James G.
Schofield, Louis
King, Christopher L.
Mueller, Ivo

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