Pneumonia

Publication Title: 
Psychiatric Research Reports
Author(s): 
Goldman, R.
Publication Title: 
PLoS medicine

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia and malaria, two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under five in Zambia, often have overlapping clinical manifestations. Zambia is piloting the use of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) by community health workers (CHWs) to treat uncomplicated malaria. Valid concerns about potential overuse of AL could be addressed by the use of malaria rapid diagnostics employed at the community level.

Author(s): 
Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo
Pilingana, Portipher
MacLeod, William B.
Semrau, Katherine
Siazeele, Kazungu
Kalesha, Penelope
Hamainza, Busiku
Seidenberg, Phil
Mazimba, Arthur
Sabin, Lora
Kamholz, Karen
Thea, Donald M.
Hamer, Davidson H.
Publication Title: 
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

OBJECTIVE: Excess iron may increase oxidative stress and play a role in vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Here we determined whether the iron chelator, desferrioxamine (DFO), ameliorates oxidative stress and cellular adhesion molecule expression in a murine model of local inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dorsal air pouches were created in C57BL/6J mice by subcutaneous injection of air. DFO (100 mg/kg body weight) was injected into the air pouch once a day for two days followed immediately on the second day by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2.5 mg/kg body weight).

Author(s): 
Li, Lixin
Frei, Balz
Publication Title: 
Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology

BACKGROUND: The effect of ageing on several pathologic features of allergic asthma (pulmonary inflammation, eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion), and their relationship with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lung inflammation, mucus metaplasia and AHR in relationship with age in murine models of allergic asthma comparing young and older mice. METHODS: Young (6 weeks) and older (6, 12, 18 months) BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA).

Author(s): 
Busse, Paula J.
Zhang, Teng Fei
Srivastava, Kamal
Schofield, Brian
Li, Xiu-Min
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

Viral infection is associated with approximately one-half of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which in turn, accelerate disease progression. In this study, we infected mice exposed to a combination of elastase and LPS, a constituent of cigarette smoke and a risk factor for development of COPD, with rhinovirus serotype 1B, and examined animals for viral persistence, airway resistance, lung volume, and cytokine responses.

Author(s): 
Sajjan, Umadevi
Ganesan, Shyamala
Comstock, Adam T.
Shim, Jee
Wang, Qiong
Nagarkar, Deepti R.
Zhao, Ying
Goldsmith, Adam M.
Sonstein, Joanne
Linn, Marisa J.
Curtis, Jeffrey L.
Hershenson, Marc B.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

BACKGROUND: The glutathione-S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1) null genotype has been reported to be a risk factor for acute respiratory disease associated with increases in ambient air ozone levels. Ozone is known to cause an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. However, it is not known whether GSTM1 modulates these ozone responses in vivo in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the GSTM1 null genotype modulates ozone responses in human subjects.

Author(s): 
Alexis, Neil E.
Zhou, Haibo
Lay, John C.
Harris, Bradford
Hernandez, Michelle L.
Lu, Tsui-Shan
Bromberg, Philip A.
Diaz-Sanchez, David
Devlin, Robert B.
Kleeberger, Steven R.
Peden, David B.
Publication Title: 
Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology

BACKGROUND: Chronic allergic asthma is the result of a T-helper type 2 (Th2)-biased immune status. Current asthma therapies control symptoms in some patients, but a long-lasting therapy has not been established. Anti-Asthma Simplified Herbal Medicine Intervention (ASHMI™), a Chinese herbal formula, improved symptoms and lung function, and reduced Th2 responses in a controlled trial of patients with persistent moderate to severe asthma.

Author(s): 
Srivastava, K.
Zhang, T.
Yang, N.
Sampson, H.
Li, X. M.
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

Leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H) is a proinflammatory enzyme that generates the inflammatory mediator leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)). LTA(4)H also possesses aminopeptidase activity with unknown substrate and physiological importance; we identified the neutrophil chemoattractant proline-glycine-proline (PGP) as this physiological substrate. PGP is a biomarker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is implicated in neutrophil persistence in the lung. In acute neutrophil-driven inflammation, PGP was degraded by LTA(4)H, which facilitated the resolution of inflammation.

Author(s): 
Snelgrove, Robert J.
Jackson, Patricia L.
Hardison, Matthew T.
Noerager, Brett D.
Kinloch, Andrew
Gaggar, Amit
Shastry, Suresh
Rowe, Steven M.
Shim, Yun M.
Hussell, Tracy
Blalock, J. Edwin
Publication Title: 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine

In vitro and limited in vivo evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species derived from NADPH oxidases (NOX-ROS) play an important role in inflammatory responses by enhancing the activity of redox-sensitive cell signaling pathways and transcription factors. Here, we investigated the role of NOX-ROS in TNFα-induced acute inflammatory responses in vivo, using mice deficient in the gp91(phox) (NOX2) or p47(phox) subunits of NADPH oxidase.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Wei-Jian
Wei, Hao
Tien, Ying-Tzang
Frei, Balz
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) deficiency (knockout [KO]) results in a failure of mice to generate an airway hyperreactivity (AHR) response on both the BALB/c and C57BL/6 background. The cause of the failed AHR response is the defective population of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in the VDR KO mice because wild-type (WT) iNKT cells rescued the AHR response. VDR KO mice had significantly fewer iNKT cells and normal numbers of T cells in the spleen compared with WT mice. In BALB/c VDR KO mice, the reduced frequencies of iNKT cells were not apparent in the liver or thymus.

Author(s): 
Yu, Sanhong
Zhao, Jun
Cantorna, Margherita T.

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