TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik
The Ma gene for root-knot nematode (RKN)resistance from Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera L.)confers a complete-spectrum and a heat-stable resistance to Meloidogvne spp., conversely to Mi-I from tomato,which has a more restricted spectrum and a reduced efficiency at high temperature. This gene was identified from a perennial self-incompatible near-wild rootstock species and lies in cosegregation with the SCAR marker SCAFLP2 on the Prunus linkage group 7 in a 2.3 cM interval between the SCAR SCAL19 and SSR pchgms6 markers.
Terminalia trees are being over-exploited because of their medicinal and economical importance leading to loss of valuable genetic resources. For sustainable utilization and conservation, assessment of genetic diversity therefore becomes imperative. We report a comprehensive first study on estimation and analysis of genetic variation through Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), inter simple sequence repeat polymorphism (ISSR) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) across three species of Terminalia.
Once thought to be an extremely complex conundrum of weak genetic and environmental effects, exceptional longevity is beginning to yield genetic findings. Numerous lower organism and mammalian models demonstrate genetic mutations that increase life-span markedly. These variations, some of them evolutionarily conserved, inform us about biochemical pathways that significantly impact upon longevity. Centenarian studies have also proven useful as they are a cohort that, relative to younger age groups, lacks genotypes linked to age-related lethal diseases and premature mortality.
Centenarians are people who escaped from major common diseases, including cancer, and reached the extreme limits of human life-span. The analysis of demographic data indicates that cancer incidence and mortality show a levelling off around the age of 85-90 years, and suggests that oldest old people and centenarians are protected from cancer onset and progression.
JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association
CONTEXT: Individuals with exceptional longevity have a lower incidence and/or significant delay in the onset of age-related disease, and their family members may inherit biological factors that modulate aging processes and disease susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To identify specific biological and genetic factors that are associated with or reliably define a human longevity phenotype.
Subjects with exceptional longevity have a lower incidence and/or significant delay in the onset of age-related disease, and their family members may inherit biological factors that modulate aging processes and disease susceptibility. In a case control study, we aim to determine phenotype and genotype of exceptional longevity in a genetically homogenous population (Ashkenazi Jews), and their offspring, while an age-matched control group of Ashkenazi Jews was used as control groups.
Alteration of single genes involved in nutrient and lipoprotein metabolism increases longevity in several animal models. Because exceptional longevity in humans is familial, it is likely that polymorphisms in genes favorably influence certain phenotypes and increase the likelihood of exceptional longevity. A group of Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians (n = 213), their offspring (n = 216), and an age-matched Ashkenazi control group (n = 258) were genotyped for 66 polymorphisms in 36 candidate genes related to cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Longevity phenotype in humans results from the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Few gene polymorphisms have been identified so far with a modest effect on lifespan leaving room for the search of other players in the longevity game. It has been recently demonstrated that targeted disruption of the mouse homolog of the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) gene (AGTR1) translates into marked prolongation of animal lifespan (Benigni et al., J Clin Invest 119(3):524-530, 2009).
BACKGROUND: The -493G/T polymorphism in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) gene is associated with lower serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels and longevity in several populations, but the results are inconsistent in different racial/ethnic groups. The current study was to investigate the plausible association of MTP -493G/T polymorphism with serum lipid levels and longevity in Zhuang long-lived families residing in Bama area, a famous home of longevity in Guangxi, China.
The myostatin (MSTN) gene is a candidate to influence extreme longevity owing to its role in modulating muscle mass and sarcopenia and especially in inhibiting the main nutrient-sensing pathway involved in longevity, i.e. mammalian target of rapamycin. We compared allele/genotype distributions of the exonic MSTN variants K153R (rs1805086), E164K (rs35781413), I225T and P198A, in Spanish centenarians (cases, n = 156; 132 women, age range 100-111 years) and younger adults (controls, n = 384; 167 women, age <50 years).