Polymorphism, Genetic

Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Genetics & Development

Once thought to be an extremely complex conundrum of weak genetic and environmental effects, exceptional longevity is beginning to yield genetic findings. Numerous lower organism and mammalian models demonstrate genetic mutations that increase life-span markedly. These variations, some of them evolutionarily conserved, inform us about biochemical pathways that significantly impact upon longevity. Centenarian studies have also proven useful as they are a cohort that, relative to younger age groups, lacks genotypes linked to age-related lethal diseases and premature mortality.

Author(s): 
Perls, Thomas
Kunkel, Louis
Puca, Annibale
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Centenarians are people who escaped from major common diseases, including cancer, and reached the extreme limits of human life-span. The analysis of demographic data indicates that cancer incidence and mortality show a levelling off around the age of 85-90 years, and suggests that oldest old people and centenarians are protected from cancer onset and progression.

Author(s): 
BonafË, Massimiliano
Barbi, Cristiana
Storci, Gianluca
Salvioli, Stefano
Capri, Miriam
Olivieri, Fabiola
Valensin, Silvana
Monti, Daniela
Gonos, Efstathios S.
De Benedictis, Giovanna
Franceschi, Claudio
Publication Title: 
JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association

CONTEXT: Individuals with exceptional longevity have a lower incidence and/or significant delay in the onset of age-related disease, and their family members may inherit biological factors that modulate aging processes and disease susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To identify specific biological and genetic factors that are associated with or reliably define a human longevity phenotype.

Author(s): 
Barzilai, Nir
Atzmon, Gil
Schechter, Clyde
Schaefer, Ernst J.
Cupples, Adrienne L.
Lipton, Richard
Cheng, Suzanne
Shuldiner, Alan R.
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Subjects with exceptional longevity have a lower incidence and/or significant delay in the onset of age-related disease, and their family members may inherit biological factors that modulate aging processes and disease susceptibility. In a case control study, we aim to determine phenotype and genotype of exceptional longevity in a genetically homogenous population (Ashkenazi Jews), and their offspring, while an age-matched control group of Ashkenazi Jews was used as control groups.

Author(s): 
Atzmon, Gil
Rincon, Marielisa
Rabizadeh, Pegah
Barzilai, Nir
Publication Title: 
PLoS biology

Alteration of single genes involved in nutrient and lipoprotein metabolism increases longevity in several animal models. Because exceptional longevity in humans is familial, it is likely that polymorphisms in genes favorably influence certain phenotypes and increase the likelihood of exceptional longevity. A group of Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians (n = 213), their offspring (n = 216), and an age-matched Ashkenazi control group (n = 258) were genotyped for 66 polymorphisms in 36 candidate genes related to cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Author(s): 
Atzmon, Gil
Rincon, Marielisa
Schechter, Clyde B.
Shuldiner, Alan R.
Lipton, Richard B.
Bergman, Aviv
Barzilai, Nir
Publication Title: 
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

Longevity phenotype in humans results from the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Few gene polymorphisms have been identified so far with a modest effect on lifespan leaving room for the search of other players in the longevity game. It has been recently demonstrated that targeted disruption of the mouse homolog of the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) gene (AGTR1) translates into marked prolongation of animal lifespan (Benigni et al., J Clin Invest 119(3):524-530, 2009).

Author(s): 
Benigni, Ariela
Orisio, Silvia
Noris, Marina
Iatropoulos, Paraskevas
Castaldi, Davide
Kamide, Kei
Rakugi, Hiromi
Arai, Yasumichi
Todeschini, Marta
Ogliari, Giulia
Imai, Enyu
Gondo, Yasuyuki
Hirose, Nobuyoshi
Mari, Daniela
Remuzzi, Giuseppe
Publication Title: 
Lipids in Health and Disease

BACKGROUND: The -493G/T polymorphism in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) gene is associated with lower serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels and longevity in several populations, but the results are inconsistent in different racial/ethnic groups. The current study was to investigate the plausible association of MTP -493G/T polymorphism with serum lipid levels and longevity in Zhuang long-lived families residing in Bama area, a famous home of longevity in Guangxi, China.

Author(s): 
Pan, Shang-Ling
Luo, Xiao-Qiu
Lu, Ze-Ping
Lu, Shao-Hua
Luo, Huan
Liu, Cheng-Wu
Hu, Cai-You
Yang, Ming
Du, Li-Li
Song, Zhen
Pang, Guo-Fang
Wu, Hua-Yu
Huang, Jin-Bo
Peng, Jun-hua
Yin, Rui-Xing
Publication Title: 
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

The myostatin (MSTN) gene is a candidate to influence extreme longevity owing to its role in modulating muscle mass and sarcopenia and especially in inhibiting the main nutrient-sensing pathway involved in longevity, i.e. mammalian target of rapamycin. We compared allele/genotype distributions of the exonic MSTN variants K153R (rs1805086), E164K (rs35781413), I225T and P198A, in Spanish centenarians (cases, n = 156; 132 women, age range 100-111 years) and younger adults (controls, n = 384; 167 women, age <50 years).

Author(s): 
Garatachea, Nuria
PinÛs, Tom‡s
C·mara, Yolanda
RodrÌguez-Romo, Gabriel
Emanuele, Enzo
Ricevuti, Giovanni
Venturini, Letizia
Santos-Lozano, Alejandro
Santiago-Dorrego, Catalina
Fiuza-Luces, Carmen
Yvert, Thomas
Andreu, Antoni L.
Lucia, Alejandro
Publication Title: 
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

Longevity phenotype in humans results from the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Few gene polymorphisms have been identified so far with a modest effect on lifespan leaving room for the search of other players in the longevity game. It has been recently demonstrated that targeted disruption of the mouse homolog of the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) gene (AGTR1) translates into marked prolongation of animal lifespan (Benigni et al., J Clin Invest 119(3):524-530, 2009).

Author(s): 
Benigni, Ariela
Orisio, Silvia
Noris, Marina
Iatropoulos, Paraskevas
Castaldi, Davide
Kamide, Kei
Rakugi, Hiromi
Arai, Yasumichi
Todeschini, Marta
Ogliari, Giulia
Imai, Enyu
Gondo, Yasuyuki
Hirose, Nobuyoshi
Mari, Daniela
Remuzzi, Giuseppe
Publication Title: 
Tsitologiia

Interdisciplinary study of telomere length, polymorphism of genes of renin-angiotensin (ACE) and serotonin (5HTR2A and 5HTTPR) systems in population of aged and old inhabitants of the North-West of Russia was conducted, in their relations to data from clinical and geriatric anamnesis, and psychological functioning. Regular link between telomere length and respondent's age was demonstrated in subgroups of old respondents and long-livers, by method of factor analysis.

Author(s): 
Smirnova, T. Iu
Runov, A. L.
Vonski?, M. S.
Spivak, D. L.
Zakharchuk, A. G.
Mikhel'son, V. M.
Spivak, I. M.

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