Polysaccharides

Publication Title: 
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis: JTH

BACKGROUND: Thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban (R) is superior to enoxaparin in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (MOS). However, rivaroxaban has never been directly compared with fondaparinux (F), which also shows superior efficacy over enoxaparin. The clinical impact of switching from fondaparinux to rivaroxaban thromboprophylaxis is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban or fondaparinux thromboprophylaxis in unselected patients undergoing MOS.

Author(s): 
Beyer-Westendorf, J.
L¸tzner, J.
Donath, L.
Radke, O. C.
Kuhlisch, E.
Hartmann, A.
Weiss, N.
Werth, S.
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

Adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in ageing and longevity; many studies, both human and animal, have focussed on the effects of food limitation. Here we present a new model based on striking differences between two 'normal' inbred strains of albino Wistar rats the Charles River (CR) and Harlan Olac (HO) that have marked differences in age-related accumulation of fat and insulin-stimulated rates of glucose incorporation into lipid in the epididymal fat pads (EFP).

Author(s): 
Kunjara, Sirilaksana
Greenbaum, A. Leslie
Rademacher, Thomas W.
McLean, Patricia
Publication Title: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Isolation conditions of immunoglobulin in egg yolk (IgY) were optimized by the addition of various levels of Na-alginate (Alg), lambda-carrageenan (lambda-Cg), Na-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and pectin (PC) to 6-fold diluted yolk. The mixtures were then reacted at pH 4.0-6.0 for 30 min. The optimal isolation conditions of IgY for Alg, lambda-Cg, and CMC were at the 0.1% level and at pH 5.0, while those for PC were at the 0.15% level and at the same pH.

Author(s): 
Chang, H. M.
Lu, T. C.
Chen, C. C.
Tu, Y. Y.
Hwang, J. Y.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules

Asparagus racemosus Linn. (Fam. Liliaceae) is an ethno-pharmacologically acclaimed Ayurvedic medicinal plant. In the present study, aqueous extract of A. racemosus (ARC) was fractionated and screened for the polysaccharide fraction (ARP). The characterization was done by enzymatic, Size Exclusion, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID), high pressure anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and thin layer chromatographic analyses. Phyto-chemical evaluation confirmed the presence of 26.7% of 2→1 linked fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS).

Author(s): 
Thakur, Mayank
Connellan, Paul
Deseo, Myrna A.
Morris, Carol
Praznik, Werner
Loeppert, Renate
Dixit, V. K.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Azadirachta indica A. Juss, popularly known as neem, has been extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine by Indian population for over 2000 years. It is used traditionally for the healing of various diseases. Natural products and their derivatives provide an excellent source for new anti-viral drugs. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aims at evaluating the activity of two polysaccharides (P1 and P2) isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica and their chemical sulfated derivatives (P1S and P2S) against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1).

Author(s): 
Faccin-Galhardi, Ligia Carla
Yamamoto, Kristie Aimi
Ray, Sayani
Ray, Bimalendu
Carvalho Linhares, Rosa Elisa
Nozawa, Carlos
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Tinospora cordifolia is used in Ayurveda as "Rasayanas" to improve the immune system and the body resistance against infections. Polysaccharides are the main constituents which are considered to be responsible for immune enhancement. In this study, immunomodulatory activity of three polysaccharide enriched fractions was evaluated using the polymorphonuclear leukocyte function test. Sugar composition was determined by GC-MS analysis of the derivatised fractions. The active polysaccharide fractions mainly constitute glucose, fructose and arabinose as monomer units.

Author(s): 
Sharma, Upendra
Bala, Manju
Saini, Rikki
Verma, Praveen Kumar
Kumar, Neeraj
Singh, Bikram
Munshi, Renuka Kulkarni
Bhalerao, Supriya
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

Estrogen is a powerful neuroprotective agent with the ability to induce trophic and antiapoptotic genes. However, concerns about negative overall health consequences of estrogen replacement after menopause have led to the adoption of other strategies to obtain estrogen's benefits in the brain, including the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators, high soy diets, or isoflavone supplements. This study sought to determine the ability of a high soy diet to induce neuroprotective gene expression in the female rat brain and compare the actions of soy with estrogen.

Author(s): 
Lovekamp-Swan, Tara
Glendenning, Michele L.
Schreihofer, Derek A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients commonly use dietary supplements to "boost immune function". A polysaccharide extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake extract) showed immunomodulatory effects in preclinical studies and therefore the potential for clinical use. Whether oral administration in human produces measurable immunologic effects, however, is unknown. METHODS: In a phase I/II dose escalation trial, 34 postmenopausal breast cancer patients, free of disease after initial treatment, were enrolled sequentially in five cohorts.

Author(s): 
Deng, Gary
Lin, Hong
Seidman, Andrew
Fornier, Monica
D'Andrea, Gabriella
Wesa, Kathleen
Yeung, Simon
Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna
Vickers, Andrew J.
Cassileth, Barrie
Publication Title: 
International Immunopharmacology

Yamoa (ground bark of Funtumia elastica tree) is marketed and sold as a dietary supplement with anecdotal therapeutic effects in the treatment of asthma and hay fever. We determined that Yamoa and Yamoa-derived polysaccharides affected innate immunity, in part, by priming gammadelta T cells. Gene expression patterns in purified bovine gammadelta T cells and monocytes induced by Yamoa were similar to those induced by ultrapure lipopolysaccharide (uLPS).

Author(s): 
Graff, Jill C.
Kimmel, Emily M.
Freedman, Brett
Schepetkin, Igor A.
Holderness, Jeff
Quinn, Mark T.
Jutila, Mark A.
Hedges, Jodi F.
Publication Title: 
Vaccine

Influenza infection is a major clinical problem and Echinacea purpurea, a widely consumed botanical product, is purported to alter the course of respiratory infections including influenza. Mice infected with WSN influenza A and treated with E. purpurea polysaccharide extract had less weight loss than untreated mice but similar pulmonary viral titers. Echinacea-treated mice had lower systemic and pulmonary KC and IL-10 levels and lower systemic IFN-gamma levels following influenza infection. These suggest that E.

Author(s): 
Fusco, Dahlene
Liu, Xinyan
Savage, Caroline
Taur, Ying
Xiao, Weilie
Kennelly, Edward
Yuan, Jianda
Cassileth, Barrie
Salvatore, Mirella
Papanicolaou, Genovefa A.

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