Posterior Horn Cells

Publication Title: 
Masui. The Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology

The essential elements of anesthesia are : hypnosis, amnesia, analgesia, immobility, and inhibition of untoward reflexes. The spinal cord is responsible for the latter three. Suppression of excitatory transmission and stimulation of inhibitory transmission are the anesthetic mechanisms in the spinal cord. Each anesthetic, however, has a unique effect on the transmission systems in the spinal cord. Some exclusively suppress excitatory transmission or stimulate inhibitory transmission, and others have a dual effect. The minimum alveolar/anesthetic concentration (MAC) is spinally mediated.

Author(s): 
Yamamoto, Tomohiro
Honda, Hiroyuki
Kohno, Tatsuro
Publication Title: 
Pain

Previous findings that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in neuropathic pain, mainly through spinal mechanisms, suggest that ROS may be involved in central sensitization. To investigate the possible role of ROS in central sensitization, we examined in rats the effects of ROS scavengers on capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia, which is known to be mediated by central sensitization. We used two different ROS scavengers: phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPOL).

Author(s): 
Lee, Inhyung
Kim, Hee Kee
Kim, Jae Hyo
Chung, Kyungsoon
Chung, Jin Mo
Publication Title: 
Pain

Although it has been shown that pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) facilitate perception of noxious inputs at the spinal level, the mechanisms have not been understood. This study determined the cell type that produces IL-1beta, the co-localization of IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) and Fos and NR1 in the spinal cord, and the effects of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) on NR1 phosphorylation and hyperalgesia in a rat model of inflammatory pain.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Rui-Xin
Li, Aihui
Liu, Bing
Wang, Linbo
Ren, Ke
Zhang, Haiqing
Berman, Brian M.
Lao, Lixing
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

Although electroacupuncture (EA) is widely used to treat pain, its mechanisms have not been completely understood. The present study investigated the descending inhibitory system involvement in EA action. Inflammatory pain was induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant subcutaneously into one hind paw of rats with dorsolateral funiculus lesions and sham-operated rats.

Author(s): 
Li, Aihui
Wang, Yi
Xin, Jiajia
Lao, Lixing
Ren, Ke
Berman, Brian M.
Zhang, Rui-Xin
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurophysiology

Acupuncture is shown to be effective in producing analgesia in ankle sprain pain in humans and animals. To examine the underlying mechanisms of the acupuncture-induced analgesia, the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on weight-bearing forces (WBR) of the affected foot and dorsal horn neuron activities were examined in a rat model of ankle sprain. Ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending ligaments of the left ankle in the rat.

Author(s): 
Kim, Jae Hyo
Kim, Hee Young
Chung, Kyungsoon
Chung, Jin Mo
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurophysiology

Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain.

Author(s): 
Kim, Jae Hyo
Kim, Hee Young
Chung, Kyungsoon
Chung, Jin Mo
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

OBJECTIVE: Recent experimental evidence demonstrating neuronal/synaptic plasticity and, in particular, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in spinal neurons is reviewed. The implications of these studies for possible mechanistic explanations of low back pain and its remediation by spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) are explored. Brief descriptions of LTP and LTD and elaboration of the key roles of calcium, glutamate, and glutamate receptors in LTP/LTD are provided as separate appendices.

Author(s): 
Boal, Robert W.
Gillette, Richard G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

OBJECTIVE: Recent experimental evidence demonstrating neuronal/synaptic plasticity and, in particular, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in spinal neurons is reviewed. The implications of these studies for possible mechanistic explanations of low back pain and its remediation by spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) are explored. Brief descriptions of LTP and LTD and elaboration of the key roles of calcium, glutamate, and glutamate receptors in LTP/LTD are provided as separate appendices.

Author(s): 
Boal, Robert W.
Gillette, Richard G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated if central sensitization is induced in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (also termed the medullary dorsal horn) and C1 and C2 dorsal horns by noxious stimulation of deep upper cervical paraspinal tissues in a preparation relatively free of surgical trauma. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (275-450 g) were anesthetized intraperitoneally.

Author(s): 
Vernon, Howard
Sun, Kaiqi
Zhang, Yunfeng
Yu, Xian-Min
Sessle, Barry J.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology

Recently, paeoniflorin (PF) administered systemically was found to have analgesic effects against inflammatory pain and hypersensitivity in a naloxone-reversible manner. In the present study, we adopted intrathecal administration to evaluate whether PF has direct antinociceptive actions at the spinal level. Pain-related behaviors and spinal c-Fos expression were induced by subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV) into one hind paw of a rat.

Author(s): 
Yu, Hou-You
Mu, De-guang
Chen, Jun
Yin, Wen

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