The third stage of labor usually is eclipsed by the excitement of the birth of a baby. Evidence shows that management of this stage can directly influence important maternal outcomes such as blood loss, need for manual removal of the placenta, and postpartum hemorrhage. Most of the large trials have compared active management of the third stage to expectant management. Active management includes routine use of cord traction and uterotonins, whereas expectant management can be characterized as one of watchful waiting.
BACKGROUND: There are several Cochrane systematic reviews looking at postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) prophylaxis in the third stage of labour and another Cochrane review investigating the timing of prophylactic uterotonics in the third stage of labour (i.e. before or after delivery of the placenta). There are, however, no Cochrane reviews looking at the use of interventions given purely after delivery of the placenta.
The Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Hypnosis can be a useful therapeutic adjunct to pharmacological analgesia or anaesthesia in obstetrics. However, it is rarely considered a primary anaesthetic technique and is seldom employed in the acute surgical setting. Few obstetricians and anaesthetists currently utilise this technique in their clinical practice.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics: The Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Early postpartum hemorrhage remains a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. The most common cause is uterine atony, and initial therapy is conservative in these patients. Conservative therapy may consist of uterine massage or manual compression, blood and fluid replacement, and medical therapy with a uterotonic agent. Surgical therapy may include vessel ligations, in order to preserve childbearing capacity, or hysterectomy.
Early postpartum hemorrhage remains a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Postpartum hemorrhage is most commonly due to uterine atony and often responds to medical treatments such as administration of uterotonic drugs, alone or in combination with uterine massage or bimanual compression. As the incidence of cesarean section continues to rise, the problem of placenta previa and accreta is likely to become more common. For first-line management of postpartum hemorrhage adequate blood and fluid replacement is mandatory.
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest after postpartum hemorrhage may not respond to advanced life support. Various resuscitation methods have been proposed, including sternotomy and direct cardiac massage. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) might be an alternative. CASE: We report the case of a woman who suffered atonic uterine hemorrhage perioperatively after cesarean delivery of twins. During initial conservative treatment using prostaglandin analog (sulprostone), cardiac decompensation developed and was followed by cardiopulmonary arrest.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical efficacy of estrogen in management of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony. METHODS: Totalling 112 puerperants with postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony were randomly assigned into 2 groups and received routine managements for uterine atony such as uterine massage and uterotonics administration. The puerperants in one group (n=52) was treated with 4 mg estradiol benzoate injected intramuscularly, and the amount of blood loss 2 h after delivery and between 2 and 24 h after delivery was recorded.
The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbetocin in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. All trials found during a targeted Medline and Cochrane database search were screened for eligibility.
Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada: JOGC = Journal d'obstétrique et gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical aspects of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and provide guidelines to assist clinicians in the prevention and management of PPH. These guidelines are an update from the previous Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) clinical practice guideline on PPH, published in April 2000.
BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) remains one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, although the lack of a precise definition precludes accurate data of the absolute prevalence of PPH. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: An international expert panel in obstetrics, gynecology, hematology, transfusion, and anesthesiology undertook a comprehensive review of the literature. At a meeting in November 2011, the panel agreed on a definition of severe PPH that would identify those women who were at a high risk of adverse clinical outcomes.