Dose- and age-related hemodynamic effects were determined for an anesthetic substituted phenol, 2,6-di-sec-butyl phenol (DSB). DSB, 7.5 mg/kg, induced hypnosis in young rabbits and increased mean blood pressure to 170 +/- 14% and heart rate to 150 +/- 21% of control values. In elderly rabbits, 7.5 mg/kg DSB induced hypnosis, had no effect on blood pressure, but increased the heart rate to 130 +/- 2% of control. After ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium, 7.5 mg/kg DSB caused a decline in mean blood pressure (71 +/- 5% of control) without change in heart rate.
BACKGROUND: Despite seventeen decades of continuous clinical use, the neuronal mechanisms through which volatile anesthetics act to produce unconsciousness remain obscure. One emerging possibility is that anesthetics exert their hypnotic effects by hijacking endogenous arousal circuits. A key sleep-promoting component of this circuitry is the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), a hypothalamic region containing both state-independent neurons and neurons that preferentially fire during natural sleep.
The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science
Concern has been growing about the cardiac toxicity of antimalarial drugs. Artemisinin, a unique type of antimalarial drug originating from a Chinese medicinal plant, has minimal adverse effects, but it has been reported to inhibit delayed rectifier potassium current, a voltage-gated potassium current. However, no studies have been published concerning the effect of artemisinin on ligand-gated potassium currents.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The resurgence of malaria, particularly in the developing world, is considerable and exacerbated by the development of single-gene multi-drug resistances to chemicals such as chloroquinone. Drug therapies, as recommended by the World Health Organization, now include the use of antimalarial compounds derived from Artemisia annua--in particular, the use of artemisinin-based ingredients. Despite our limited knowledge of its mode of action or biosynthesis there is a need to secure a supply and enhance yields of artemisinin.
The effect of a mercurial ayurvedic drug (kajyoli), on the concentration of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in rat liver, kidney and brain, and on the respiratory activity of these tissues is reported. The doses used were 20 mg and 40 mg X day-1 X kg-1 body wt. daily for 30 days, the lower level being equivalent to the human dose. A marked dose-dependent decrease in respiratory activity occurred in the three tissues. The only significant changes seen in the ion concentration were a decrease in Na+ at the higher dose level in the kidney and a dose-dependent decrease in Ca2+ in the liver.
Medicinal plants described in the Indian "Ayurvedic" literature viz. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Gulvel (Tinospora cardifolia), bitter Neem (Azadirachta indica), Kanher (Nerium Andicum), Vekhand (Acorus calamus), and Peacock's feather (ash) were analyzed for minor and trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic effects of the antihypertensive Ayurveda drug Karavi Panchaka decoction and compare it with the diuretic frusemide. DESIGN: An animal study using Sprague-Dawley rats. The volume of urine and the total sodium and potassium excreted in the urine by rats in response to orally fed Karavi Panchaka decoction were compared with rats fed with frusemide. Control experiments were done with rats receiving similar volumes of distilled water orally.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Certain micronutrients are protective against cognitive decline. We examined whether there is any uniform pattern of circulating micronutrients cross-culturally that are associated with successful cognitive aging. For the U.S. sample, we used the stored serum/plasma of 115 participants, collected in Oregon, USA. The Okinawa sample consisted of 49 participants selected using similar inclusion criteria as the Oregon sample, from the Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging Project. All participants were aged 85 years and older without cognitive impairment.