OBJECTIVE: Evidence from the medical literature suggests that surgical trainees can benefit from mindful practices. Surgical educators are challenged with the need to address resident core competencies, some of which may be facilitated by higher levels of mindfulness. This study explores whether mindful residents perform better than their peers as members of the health care team. DESIGN: This study employed a multiphase, multimethod design to assess resident mindfulness, communication, and clinical performance. SETTING: Academic, tertiary medical center.