Prebiotics

Publication Title: 
Pediatrics

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Various nonpharmacologic treatments are available for pediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs). Data on efficacy and safety are scarce. The goal of this study was to summarize the evidence regarding nonpharmacologic interventions for pediatric AP-FGIDs: lifestyle interventions, dietary interventions, behavioral interventions, prebiotics and probiotics, and alternative medicine. METHODS: Searches were conducted of the Medline and Cochrane Library databases.

Author(s): 
Rutten, Juliette M. T. M.
Korterink, Judith J.
Venmans, Leonie M. A. J.
Benninga, Marc A.
Tabbers, Merit M.
Publication Title: 
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology

This review provides a summary of key findings from 22 systematic reviews on atopic eczema (AE) published over the 2-year period from January 2012 to 31 December 2013, focusing on prevention and treatment of AE. For an update of systematic reviews on the epidemiology, mechanisms of disease and methodological issues, see Part 1 of this update. Based on current systematic review evidence, the most promising intervention for the prevention of AE is the use of probiotics (and possibly prebiotics) during the late stages of pregnancy and early life.

Author(s): 
Madhok, V.
Futamura, M.
Thomas, K. S.
Barbarot, S.
Publication Title: 
Pediatrics

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Various nonpharmacologic treatments are available for pediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs). Data on efficacy and safety are scarce. The goal of this study was to summarize the evidence regarding nonpharmacologic interventions for pediatric AP-FGIDs: lifestyle interventions, dietary interventions, behavioral interventions, prebiotics and probiotics, and alternative medicine. METHODS: Searches were conducted of the Medline and Cochrane Library databases.

Author(s): 
Rutten, Juliette M. T. M.
Korterink, Judith J.
Venmans, Leonie M. A. J.
Benninga, Marc A.
Tabbers, Merit M.
Publication Title: 
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVE: Prebiotics and phytoestrogens have sparked great interest because evidence indicates that the consumption of these dietary constituents leads to lower cholesterol levels and inhibition of postmenopausal bone loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of both a prebiotic (Synergy) and a phytoestrogen (genistein) on bone and blood lipid levels in an animal model of postmenopausal women.

Author(s): 
Legette, LeeCole L.
Lee, Wang-Hee
Martin, Berdine R.
Story, Jon A.
Arabshahi, Ali
Barnes, Stephen
Weaver, Connie M.
Publication Title: 
Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)

Bifidobacteria are commonly used as probiotics in dairy foods. Select bifidobacterial species are also early colonizers of the breast-fed infant colon; however, the mechanism for this enrichment is unclear. We previously showed that Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis is a prototypical bifidobacterial species that can readily utilize human milk oligosaccharides as the sole carbon source. MS-based glycoprofiling has revealed that numerous B. infantis strains preferentially consume small mass oligosaccharides, abundant in human milks. Genome sequencing revealed that B.

Author(s): 
Garrido, Daniel
Barile, Daniela
Mills, David A.
Publication Title: 
Food Microbiology

Prebiotics are non-digestible substrates that stimulate the growth of beneficial microbial populations in the intestine, especially Bifidobacterium species. Among them, fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides are commonly used in the food industry, especially as a supplement for infant formulas. Mechanistic details on the enrichment of bifidobacteria by these prebiotics are important to understand the effects of these dietary interventions. In this study the consumption of galactooligosaccharides was studied for 22 isolates of Bifidobacterium longum subsp.

Author(s): 
Garrido, Daniel
Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago
Jimenez-Espinoza, Rogelio
Eom, Hyun-Ju
Block, David E.
Mills, David A.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis is a common member of the intestinal microbiota in breast-fed infants and capable of metabolizing human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). To investigate the bacterial response to different prebiotics, we analyzed both cell wall associated and whole cell proteins in B. infantis. Proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS followed by comparative proteomics to deduce the protein localization within the cell.

Author(s): 
Kim, Jae-Han
An, Hyun Joo
Garrido, Daniel
German, J. Bruce
Lebrilla, Carlito B.
Mills, David A.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating and widespread immune-mediated illness characterized by excessive inflammatory and effector mucosal responses leading to tissue destruction at the gastrointestinal tract. Interactions among the immune system, the commensal microbiota and the host genotype are thought to underlie the pathogenesis of IBD. However, the precise etiology of IBD remains unknown. Diet-induced changes in the composition of the gut microbiome can modulate the induction of regulatory versus effector immune responses at the gut mucosa and improve health outcomes.

Author(s): 
Viladomiu, Monica
Hontecillas, Raquel
Yuan, Lijuan
Lu, Pinyi
Bassaganya-Riera, Josep
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Recent advances in our understanding of the community structure and function of the human microbiome have implications for the potential role of probiotics and prebiotics in promoting human health. A group of experts recently met to review the latest advances in microbiota/microbiome research and discuss the implications for development of probiotics and prebiotics, primarily as they relate to effects mediated via the intestine.

Author(s): 
Petschow, Bryon
Doré, Joël
Hibberd, Patricia
Dinan, Timothy
Reid, Gregor
Blaser, Martin
Cani, Patrice D.
Degnan, Fred H.
Foster, Jane
Gibson, Glenn
Hutton, John
Klaenhammer, Todd R.
Ley, Ruth
Nieuwdorp, Max
Pot, Bruno
Relman, David
Serazin, Andrew
Sanders, Mary Ellen
Publication Title: 
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVE: Prebiotics and phytoestrogens have sparked great interest because evidence indicates that the consumption of these dietary constituents leads to lower cholesterol levels and inhibition of postmenopausal bone loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of both a prebiotic (Synergy) and a phytoestrogen (genistein) on bone and blood lipid levels in an animal model of postmenopausal women.

Author(s): 
Legette, LeeCole L.
Lee, Wang-Hee
Martin, Berdine R.
Story, Jon A.
Arabshahi, Ali
Barnes, Stephen
Weaver, Connie M.

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