Pregnancy Complications, Infectious

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharmacological (antibiotics) or non-pharmacological (cranberry products, acupuncture, probiotics and behavioural modifications). So far little is known about the best way to prevent RUTI in pregnant women.

Author(s): 
Schneeberger, Caroline
Geerlings, Suzanne E.
Middleton, Philippa
Crowther, Caroline A.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharmacological (antibiotics) or non-pharmacological (cranberry products, acupuncture, probiotics and behavioural modifications). So far little is known about the best way to prevent RUTI in pregnant women.

Author(s): 
Schneeberger, Caroline
Geerlings, Suzanne E.
Middleton, Philippa
Crowther, Caroline A.
Publication Title: 
AIDS and behavior

Most unprotected sex occurs in close relationships. However, few studies examine relational factors and sexual risk among high-risk populations. Romantic Attachment Theory states that individuals have cognitive working models for relationships that influence expectations, affect, and behavior.

Author(s): 
Kershaw, Trace S.
Milan, Stephanie
Westdahl, Claire
Lewis, Jessica
Rising, Sharon Schindler
Fletcher, Rachel
Ickovics, Jeannette
Publication Title: 
AIDS care

The condom is widely recommended as the principal method for preventing HIV transmission, but such advice obviously does not apply to women who are seeking to become pregnant. In this sense, 'safer sex' is incompatible with reproduction. Existing research into HIV transmission has examined the choices made by those wishing to conceive within a sexual relationship; such research shows that HIV is not a highly significant factor in their decision-making processes.

Author(s): 
Macaulay, L.
Kitzinger, J.
Green, G.
Wight, D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine

Plasmodium falciparum is the most common cause of severe and life-threatening malaria. Falciparum malaria causes over one million deaths every year. In Africa, a vast majority of these deaths occur in children under five years of age. The presentation of severe malaria varies with age and geographical distribution. The mortality rate is higher in adults than in children but African children develop neuro-cognitive sequelae following severe malaria more frequently.

Author(s): 
Njuguna, P.
Newton, C.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of malaria treatment based on presumptive diagnosis with that of malaria treatment based on rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). METHODS: We calculated direct costs (based on experience from Ethiopia and southern Sudan) and effectiveness (in terms of reduced over-treatment) of a free, decentralised treatment programme using artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS + AQ) or artemether-lumefantrine (ART-LUM) in a Plasmodium falciparum epidemic. Our main cost-effectiveness measure was the incremental cost per false positive treatment averted by RDTs.

Author(s): 
Rolland, Estelle
Checchi, Francesco
Pinoges, Loretxu
Balkan, Suna
Guthmann, Jean-Paul
Guerin, Philippe J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) is a promising new artemisinin combination treatment. There are no published data on the intentional use of the drug in pregnancy. Between June 2006 and January 2007, 50 Karen pregnant women with recurrent P. falciparum infections, despite 7-day treatments with quinine or artesunate (+/-clindamycin) or both, were treated with DHA-PPQ. This rescue treatment was effective and well tolerated and there was no evidence of toxicity for the mothers or the fetus. The PCR adjusted cure rate by Kaplan Meier analysis at day 63 was 92.2% (95% CI: 76.9-97.4).

Author(s): 
Rijken, Marcus J.
McGready, Rose
Boel, Machteld E.
Barends, Marion
Proux, Stephane
Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay
Singhasivanon, Pratap
Nosten, François
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Safety data regarding exposure to artemisinin-based combination therapy in pregnancy are limited. This prospective cohort study conducted in Zambia evaluated the safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in pregnant women with malaria. METHODS: Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were assigned to groups based on the drug used to treat their most recent malaria episode (AL vs. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP). Safety was assessed using standard and pregnancy-specific parameters. Post-delivery follow-up was six weeks for mothers and 12 months for live births.

Author(s): 
Manyando, Christine
Mkandawire, Rhoda
Puma, Lwipa
Sinkala, Moses
Mpabalwani, Evans
Njunju, Eric
Gomes, Melba
Ribeiro, Isabela
Walter, Verena
Virtanen, Mailis
Schlienger, Raymond
Cousin, Marc
Chipimo, Miriam
Sullivan, Frank M.
Publication Title: 
PLoS neglected tropical diseases

BACKGROUND: Fever in pregnancy is dangerous for both mother and foetus. In the 1980's malaria was the leading cause of death in pregnant women in refugee camps on the Thai-Burmese border. Artemisinin combination therapy has significantly reduced the incidence of malaria in the population. The remaining causes of fever in pregnancy are not well documented. METHODOLOGY: Pregnant women attending antenatal care, where weekly screening for malaria is routine, were invited to have a comprehensive clinical and laboratory screen if they had fever.

Author(s): 
McGready, Rose
Ashley, Elizabeth A.
Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn
Tan, Saw Oo
Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay
Viladpai-Nguen, Samuel Jacher
Jesadapanpong, Wilarat
Blacksell, Stuart D.
Peacock, Sharon J.
Paris, Daniel H.
Day, Nicholas P.
Singhasivanon, Pratap
White, Nicholas J.
Nosten, François
Publication Title: 
PLoS medicine

Antimalarial drugs will be essential tools at all stages of malaria elimination along the path towards eradication, including the early control or "attack" phase to drive down transmission and the later stages of maintaining interruption of transmission, preventing reintroduction of malaria, and eliminating the last residual foci of infection.

Author(s): 
malERA Consultative Group on Drugs

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