Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects

Publication Title: 
British Medical Bulletin

Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) occurs predominantly after the age of 50 years but is not easy to distinguish from late onset insulin-dependent diabetes. It is likely that misclassification is rare in a Caucasian population. Whilst NIDDM is widely believed to be genetically determined, recent epidemiological observations have consistently revealed statistical associations between indices of poor fetal and infant growth with susceptibility to loss of glucose tolerance in adult life.

Author(s): 
Hales, C. N.
Publication Title: 
The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

The modification of ageing by nutritional intervention is well recognised. Post-weaning diet restriction is the only widely reproducible method to slow ageing, but the effects of prenatal and preweaning diet restriction have been less well characterised. There is some evidence that diet restriction instituted in utero or shortly after birth may have an opposite effect and be associated with increased ageing, and recent work suggests that it may shorten lifespan.

Author(s): 
Sayer, A. Aihie
Cooper, C.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. METHODS: We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age.

Author(s): 
Wojcicki, Janet M.
Holbrook, Katherine
Lustig, Robert H.
Epel, Elissa
Caughey, Aaron B.
MuÒoz, Ricardo F.
Shiboski, Stephen C.
Heyman, Melvin B.
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

In the past decade, the growing field of telomere science has opened exciting new avenues for understanding the cellular and molecular substrates of stress and stress-related aging processes over the lifespan. Shorter telomere length is associated with advancing chronological age and also increased disease morbidity and mortality. Emerging studies suggest that stress accelerates the erosion of telomeres from very early in life and possibly even influences the initial (newborn) setting of telomere length.

Author(s): 
Shalev, Idan
Entringer, Sonja
Wadhwa, Pathik D.
Wolkowitz, Owen M.
Puterman, Eli
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa S.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a predictor of age-related disease onset and mortality. The association in adults of psychosocial stress or stress biomarkers with LTL suggests telomere biology may represent a possible underlying mechanism linking stress and health outcomes. It is, however, unknown whether stress exposure in intrauterine life can produce variations in LTL, thereby potentially setting up a long-term trajectory for disease susceptibility.

Author(s): 
Entringer, Sonja
Epel, Elissa S.
Kumsta, Robert
Lin, Jue
Hellhammer, Dirk H.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
W¸st, Stefan
Wadhwa, Pathik D.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a predictor of age-related disease onset and mortality. The association in adults of psychosocial stress or stress biomarkers with LTL suggests telomere biology may represent a possible underlying mechanism linking stress and health outcomes. It is, however, unknown whether stress exposure in intrauterine life can produce variations in LTL, thereby potentially setting up a long-term trajectory for disease susceptibility.

Author(s): 
Entringer, Sonja
Epel, Elissa S.
Kumsta, Robert
Lin, Jue
Hellhammer, Dirk H.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
W¸st, Stefan
Wadhwa, Pathik D.
Publication Title: 
Regulatory Peptides

Behavioral perinatology is as an interdisciplinary area of research that involves conceptualization of theoretical models and conduct of empirical studies of the dynamic time-, place-, and context-dependent interplay between biological and behavioral processes in fetal, neonatal, and infant life using an epigenetic framework of development. The biobehavioral processes of particular interest to our research group relate to the effects of maternal pre- and perinatal stress and maternal-placental-fetal stress physiology.

Author(s): 
Wadhwa, Pathik D.
Glynn, Laura
Hobel, Calvin J.
Garite, Thomas J.
Porto, Manuel
Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra
Wiglesworth, Aileen K.
Sandman, Curt A.
Publication Title: 
Psychiatrische Praxis

There is compelling evidence from family, twin and adoption studies of a substantial genetic contribution to schizophrenia. The mode of transmission is complicated and very rarely if ever involves a single gene. Rather schizophrenia results from multiple genes of small effect and their interplay with the environment. Perhaps because the overall size of the genetic effect is large, accounting for about 80 % of variance, definite environmental factors have been difficult to pin down.

Author(s): 
McGuffin, Peter
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

This paper describes the results of a series of studies showing that variations in mother-pup interactions program the development of individual differences in behavioral and endocrine stress responses in the rat. These effects are associated with altered expression of genes in brain regions, such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, that regulate the expression of stress responses. Studies from evolutionary biology suggest that such "maternal effects" are common and often associated with variations in the quality of the maternal environment.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Tie-Yuan
Parent, Carine
Weaver, Ian
Meaney, Michael J.
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Epidemiological data have linked an adverse fetal environment with increased risks of cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine, and psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Prenatal stress and/or glucocorticoid excess might underlie this link.

Author(s): 
Seckl, Jonathan R.
Meaney, Michael J.

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