Medical bribery seems to be a global problem from Eastern Europe and the Balkans to China, a diffuse phenomenon, starting with morally acceptable gratitude and ending with institutional bribery. I focus my attention on Romania and analyze similar cases in Eastern European and postcommunist countries. Medical bribery can be regarded as a particular form of human transaction, a kind of primitive contract that occurs when people do not trust institutions or other forms of social contract that are meant to guarantee their rights and protect their interests.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the generosity and consistency of 10 states' Medicaid preferred drug lists (PDLs) in high-volume therapeutic classes. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive comparisons of 7 of the top 10 therapeutic classes by Medicaid sales and of the top 10 most populous states with Medicaid PDLs. METHODS: A PDL specifies which drugs are available to patients without receiving prior approval from the state. State PDLs were collected in January 2008 to determine the status (covered or not covered) of 110 different drugs in each state.
OBJECTIVE: To examine physicians' attitudes about the impact of Medicare Part D and how it varied among seniors, particularly Medicare-Medicaid dual-eligible enrollees. STUDY DESIGN: Web-based survey of primary care physicians in North Carolina (generous Medicaid formulary) and Florida, Massachusetts, and Texas (restrictive Medicaid formularies). METHODS: Of 5141 eligible primary care physicians, 716 (14%) responded between November 2007 and March 2008. We examined Part D's effects on access overall and for selected populations.
BACKGROUND: In 2006, dual-eligible nursing home residents were randomly assigned to a Medicare Part D prescription drug plan (PDP). Subsequently, residents not enrolled in qualified plans at the start of the next year were rerandomized. PDPs vary in generosity through differences in medication coverage and utilization management. Therefore, residents' assigned plans may be relatively more or less generous for their particular drugs. The impact of generosity on residents' medication use and health outcomes is unknown.
OBJECTIVES: To quantify how access to on-patent drugs by tier placement varies by insurance type and therapeutic area. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of insurance plan drug coverage data. METHODS: Drug coverage information was collected from the Fingertip Formulary database in May 2011 for 3 drug classes (statins, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors) across 3 therapeutic areas with varying levels of generic drug availability.
Just under seven million Americans acquired private insurance through the new health insurance exchanges, or Marketplaces, in 2014. The exchange plans are required to cover essential health benefits, including prescription drugs. However, the generosity of prescription drug coverage in the plans has not been well described. Our primary objective was to examine the variability in drug coverage in the exchanges across plan types (health maintenance organization or preferred provider organization) and metal tiers (bronze, silver, gold, and platinum).
International Quarterly of Community Health Education
The "Health for All Project" (HFAP) policy in Nigeria was complemented by the National Drug Policy to ensure constant availability of high quality drugs and medical consumables at affordable prices to citizens in public hospitals. Apart from strengthening the utilization of health services, the project also sought to improve health care delivery for the poor who could not afford the high cost of drugs in private clinics and pharmaceutical stores.
Dietary supplements are becoming increasingly popular as therapies for symptom relief among menopause-age women in the United States. However, a large gap exists between research in the concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements and provider preparedness to guide patient decision making. Many menopausal women take prescription medications, over the counter medications, and herbs and dietary supplements for climactic symptoms or other health conditions. With any drug, there is the potential for interactions.
Heavy metal and pesticide contamination has previously been reported in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), in some cases at potentially toxic levels. This study was conducted to determine general patterns and toxicological significance of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in a broad sample of raw CHMs. Three-hundred-thirty-four samples representing 126 species of CHMs were collected throughout China and examined for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Of the total, 294 samples representing 112 species were also tested for 162 pesticides.