Pressure

Publication Title: 
Surgical and radiologic anatomy: SRA

The use of Fuji films is simple but their manipulation and result interpretation seem to be difficult in the framework of medical research. The reliability and reproducibility of Fuji films have been proved by many previous studies. This study was undertaken to know precisely the articular zones of the elbow and to determine the compressive stress these areas undergo during different activities, in order to assess the importance of different articular contact areas.

Author(s): 
Chantelot, C.
Wavreille, G.
Dos Remedios, C.
Landejerit, B.
Fontaine, C.
Hildebrand, H.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Laryngology and Otology

Middle ear pressure and tympanic membrane compliance were measured in 34 infants and young children (66 ears) with normal middle ears under oral choral hydrate hypnosis. Tympanograms were performed before and 40 to 60 minutes after administration of the drug. Results showed that the middle ear pressure increased significantly in all cases and in both sexes. This increase ranged between +19 and +219 mm H2O. In all cases the pressure returned to its prehypnotic values after recovery.

Author(s): 
Abdul-Baqi, K. J.
Publication Title: 
Anaesthesia

The upper oesophageal sphincter can prevent regurgitation of oesophageal contents into the pharynx following gastrooesophageal reflux in the awake patient. Upper oesophageal sphincter pressure was recorded with a Dent sleeve after hypnosis with midazolam (n = 7) and also during the rapid intravenous induction of anaesthesia with thiopentone (n = 16) or ketamine (n = 7). Thiopentone decreased mean (SD) sphincter pressure from an awake value of 43 (19) to 9 (7) mmHg (p less than 0.001) and midazolam from 38 (25) to 7 (3) mmHg (p less than 0.02).

Author(s): 
Vanner, R. G.
Pryle, B. J.
O'Dwyer, J. P.
Reynolds, F.
Publication Title: 
Physiology & Behavior

The neurophysiological mechanisms of hypnotic analgesia are still under debate. It is known that pain occurring in one part of the body (counterstimulation) decreases pain in the rest of the body by activating the diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs). The aim of this study was to explore the effects of hypnosis on both pain perception and heterotopic nociceptive stimulation. The A forms of both the Harward Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale were administered to 50 healthy students.

Author(s): 
Sandrini, G.
Milanov, I.
Malaguti, S.
Nigrelli, M. P.
Moglia, A.
Nappi, G.
Publication Title: 
Vaccine

The growing abundance of highly immunogenic vaccines has arrived with a burden of pain, distress, and common adverse reactions that in turn may interfere with parental compliance and aggravate anti-vaccine sentiment. In a study of 150 children in each of 2 age-groups, we found that approximately 20% of the subjects suffered serious distress or worse. During the procedural phase, approximately 90% of the 15-to-18 month old children and 45% of the 4-to-6 year old children showed serious distress or worse.

Author(s): 
Jacobson, R. M.
Swan, A.
Adegbenro, A.
Ludington, S. L.
Wollan, P. C.
Poland, G. A.
Vaccine Research Group
Publication Title: 
Pain

Mental stress induces endothelial dysfunction, that is a reduction of the post-occlusion brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). This does not occur in subjects highly susceptible to hypnosis (Highs) in either the waking or hypnotic state. The aim of the present experiment was to assess whether endothelial dysfunction is also induced by acute nociceptive stimulation and whether high hypnotisability and/or the specific instruction of analgesia prevent its occurrence in awake highly hypnotizable individuals.

Author(s): 
Jambrik, Zoltan
Santarcangelo, Enrica L.
Rudisch, Tibor
Varga, Albert
Forster, Tamas
Carli, Giancarlo
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Gastroenterology

OBJECTIVES: Gut-directed hypnotherapy (HT) has recently been shown to be highly effective in treating children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study was conducted to determine the extent to which this treatment success is because of an improvement in rectal sensitivity. METHODS: A total of 46 patients (aged 8-18 years) with FAP (n=28) or IBS (n=18) were randomized to either 12 weeks of standard medical therapy (SMT) or HT.

Author(s): 
Vlieger, A. M.
van den Berg, M. M.
Menko-Frankenhuis, C.
Bongers, M. E. J.
Tromp, E.
Benninga, M. A.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

During hypnosis, the authors tested repeated weight-related, literal and metaphorical suggestions about the heaviness of the subjects' arms. The purpose was to determine if linguistically varied hypnotic suggestions produced significantly different motor reactions--involuntary pressure forces of the forearms--as assessed by a linguistic biomechanical system.

Author(s): 
Santarpia, Alfonso
Blanchet, Alain
Mininni, Giuseppe
Andrasik, Frank
Kwiatkowski, Fabrice
Lambert, Jean François
Publication Title: 
Fogorvosi Szemle

The experience of pain and discomfort during orthodontic treatment is common. Pain is a subjective response to noxious stimuli, but it is also influenced by age, gender, previous pain experience, emotional factors and stress. The ortodontic treatments such as separation, placement of the arch wire, activation of the fix or removable appliances and debonding cause some degree of pain for the patient. In a prospective study 95% of the patients reported pain experience during orthodontic treatment. The periodontal pain caused by the combination of pressure, ischemia, inflammation and oedema.

Author(s): 
Koritsánszky, Nelli
Madléna, Melinda
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

Despite aromatherapy's popularity, efficacy data are scant, and potential mechanisms are controversial. This randomized controlled trial examined the psychological, autonomic, endocrine, and immune consequences of one purported relaxant odor (lavender), one stimulant odor (lemon), and a no-odor control (water), before and after a stressor (cold pressor); 56 healthy men and women were exposed to each of the odors during three separate visits.

Author(s): 
Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.
Graham, Jennifer E.
Malarkey, William B.
Porter, Kyle
Lemeshow, Stanley
Glaser, Ronald

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