Presynaptic Terminals

Publication Title: 
PloS One

Mutations in the fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma gene (FUS/TLS, FUS) have been identified in sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). FUS is an RNA-binding protein that is normally localized in the nucleus, but is mislocalized to the cytoplasm in ALS, and comprises cytoplasmic inclusions in ALS-affected areas. However, it is still unknown whether the neurodegeneration that occurs in ALS is caused by the loss of FUS nuclear function, or by the gain of toxic function due to cytoplasmic FUS aggregation.

Author(s): 
Sasayama, Hiroshi
Shimamura, Mai
Tokuda, Takahiko
Azuma, Yumiko
Yoshida, Tomokatsu
Mizuno, Toshiki
Nakagawa, Masanori
Fujikake, Nobuhiro
Nagai, Yoshitaka
Yamaguchi, Masamitsu
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

GABA-mediated postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded from dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats, in acute brain slices, and from enzymatically or mechanically dissociated neurons. In young rats (3-10 d of age), where GABA is excitatory, glycine (1-3 microm) and taurine (10-30 microm) increased the amplitude of evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) and the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) but had minimal postsynaptic effects.

Author(s): 
Ye, Jiang-Hong
Wang, Fushun
Krnjevic, Kresimir
Wang, Weizhen
Xiong, Zhi-Gang
Zhang, Jingli
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Physiology

Gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded from dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area of young rats in acute brain slices and from mechanically dissociated neurons. Low concentrations (0.1-0.3 microm) of muscimol, a selective GABA(A)R agonist, increased the amplitude, and reduced the paired pulse ratio of evoked IPSCs. Moreover, muscimol increased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs). These data point to a presynaptic locus of muscimol action.

Author(s): 
Xiao, Cheng
Zhou, Chunyi
Li, Keyong
Ye, Jiang-Hong
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Anesthesiologists among physicians are on the top of the drug abuse list, and the mechanism is unclear. Recent studies suggest occupation-related second-hand exposure to i.v. drugs, including propofol, may play a role. Growing evidence indicates that propofol is one of the choices of drugs being abused. In this study, we show that propofol at minute concentrations increases glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission and discharges of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA).

Author(s): 
Li, Ke-yong
Xiao, Cheng
Xiong, Ming
Delphin, Ellise
Ye, Jiang-Hong
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies are associated with abnormal neuronal aggregation of α-synuclein. However, the mechanisms of aggregation and their relationship to disease are poorly understood. We developed an in vivo multiphoton imaging paradigm to study α-synuclein aggregation in mouse cortex with subcellular resolution. We used a green fluorescent protein-tagged human α-synuclein mouse line that has moderate overexpression levels mimicking human disease.

Author(s): 
Spinelli, Kateri J.
Taylor, Jonathan K.
Osterberg, Valerie R.
Churchill, Madeline J.
Pollock, Eden
Moore, Cynthia
Meshul, Charles K.
Unni, Vivek K.
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