Primary Cell Culture

Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that activation of autophagy increases the lifespan of organisms from yeast to flies. In contrast to the lifespan extension effect in lower organisms, it has been reported that overexpression of unc-51-like kinase 3 (ULK3), the mammalian homolog of autophagy-specific gene 1 (ATG1), induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts. Therefore, we assessed whether the activation of autophagy would genuinely induce premature senescence in human cells.

Author(s): 
Kang, Hyun Tae
Lee, Ki Baek
Kim, Sung Young
Choi, Hae Ri
Park, Sang Chul
Publication Title: 
Journal of molecular neuroscience: MN

The ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is known to regulate a wide variety of developmental and secretory functions in neural and non-neural tissues. The mechanisms that regulate its transcription in these varied tissues are not well understood. Epigenetic processes may play a role in the tissue-specific regulation of mRNA expression from the ?7 nicotinic receptor subunit gene, CHRNA7.

Author(s): 
Canastar, Andrew
Logel, Judith
Graw, Sharon
Finlay-Schultz, Jessica
Osborne, Christina
Palionyte, Milda
Drebing, Carla
Plehaty, Molly
Wilson, Lisa
Eyeson, Rosemary
Leonard, Sherry
Publication Title: 
Stem Cell Reports

Modeling of neurological diseases using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the somatic cells of patients has provided a means of elucidating pathogenic mechanisms and performing drug screening. T cells are an ideal source of patient-specific iPSCs because they can be easily obtained from samples. Recent studies indicated that iPSCs retain an epigenetic memory relating to their cell of origin that restricts their differentiation potential. The classical method of differentiation via embryoid body formation was not suitable for T cell-derived iPSCs (TiPSCs).

Author(s): 
Matsumoto, Takuya
Fujimori, Koki
Andoh-Noda, Tomoko
Ando, Takayuki
Kuzumaki, Naoko
Toyoshima, Manabu
Tada, Hirobumi
Imaizumi, Kent
Ishikawa, Mitsuru
Yamaguchi, Ryo
Isoda, Miho
Zhou, Zhi
Sato, Shigeto
Kobayashi, Tetsuro
Ohtaka, Manami
Nishimura, Ken
Kurosawa, Hiroshi
Yoshikawa, Takeo
Takahashi, Takuya
Nakanishi, Mahito
Ohyama, Manabu
Hattori, Nobutaka
Akamatsu, Wado
Okano, Hideyuki
Publication Title: 
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals

Artemisinin drugs have become the first-line antimalarials in areas of multidrug resistance. However, monotherapy with artemisinin drugs results in comparatively high recrudescence rates. Autoinduction of cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated metabolism, resulting in reduced exposure, has been supposed to be the underlying mechanism.

Author(s): 
Xing, Jie
Kirby, Brian J.
Whittington, Dale
Wan, Yakun
Goodlett, David R.
Publication Title: 
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

Recent studies have indicated the profound anti-tumor activity of artemisinin's compounds, among which; arteether is an oil-soluble derivative of artemisinin with an endoperoxide bridge that can induce apoptosis in tumor cells but not in the normal cells. An experiment was carried out on tumor-bearing Balb/c mice to estimate the effects of Arteether on tumor growth and antitumor immune responses. Briefly, 6mg/kg/day of Arteether and diluents were administered to two groups of mice. Tumor sizes were measured using digital verniercallipers.

Author(s): 
Azimi Mohamadabadi, Maryam
Hassan, Zuhair Muhammad
Zavaran Hosseini, Ahmad
Noori, Shekoofe
Mahdavi, Mehdi
Maroufizadeh, Saman
Maroof, Hamidreza
Publication Title: 
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

The concept of Ayurvedic expert guided drug discovery and development is defined and put to test systematically for the first time in literature. Western Science has explored only ~5% of the approximately 25,000 species of higher plants for drug leads. The ancient medical science of Ayurveda has however employed a much larger spectrum of plants for clinical treatment. Clerodendrum viscosum (CV), a commonly growing weed in the Indian subcontinent has been employed by S. Nirmalananda (Ayurvedic expert) for the treatment of cervical cancer.

Author(s): 
Sun, Chong
Nirmalananda, Swami
Jenkins, Charles E.
Debnath, Shawon
Balambika, Rema
Fata, Jimmie E.
Raja, Krishnaswami S.
Publication Title: 
Arthritis Research & Therapy

INTRODUCTION: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a bioactive polyphenol of green tea and exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting signaling events and gene expression. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the principal cytokine linked to cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis (OA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the global effect of EGCG on IL-1β-induced expression of proteins associated with OA pathogenesis in human chondrocytes. METHODS: Primary OA chondrocytes were pretreated with EGCG (10 to 100 uM) and then stimulated with IL-1β (5 ng/ml) for 24 hours.

Author(s): 
Akhtar, Nahid
Haqqi, Tariq M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neuroimmunology

The Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a soybean-derived serine protease inhibitor with anti-inflammatory properties. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) serves as an animal model of the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE is mediated by Th1 and Th17 cells which migrate into the CNS and initiate inflammation directed against myelin components, resulting in CNS pathology and neurological clinical deficit. We have shown previously that oral treatment with BBI delays onset of EAE and reduces its severity.

Author(s): 
Dai, Hong
Ciric, Bogoljub
Zhang, Guang-Xian
Rostami, Abdolmohamad
Publication Title: 
Journal of Hepatology

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Steatohepatitis (SH) is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive production of superoxide, which can then be converted into H(2)O(2) by SOD2. Since mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) plays a critical role in H(2)O(2) reduction, we explored the interplay between superoxide, H(2)O(2), and mGSH in nutritional and genetic models of SH, which exhibit mGSH depletion. METHODS: We used isolated mitochondria and primary hepatocytes, as well as in vivo SH models showing mGSH depletion to test the consequences of superoxide scavenging.

Author(s): 
von Montfort, Claudia
Matias, Núria
Fernández, Anna
Fucho, Raquel
Conde de la Rosa, Laura
Martinez-Chantar, Maria Luz
Mato, José M.
Machida, Keigo
Tsukamoto, Hidekazu
Murphy, Michael P.
Mansouri, Abdellah
Kaplowitz, Neil
Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen
Fernandez-Checa, Jose C.
Publication Title: 
Neurochemistry International

Lanthionines are novel neurotrophic and neuroprotective small molecules that show promise for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, a recently developed, cell permeable lanthionine derivative known as LKE (lanthionine ketimine 5-ethyl ester) promotes neurite growth at low nanomolar concentrations. LKE also has neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Its therapeutic potential in cerebral ischemia and its mechanisms of neurotrophic action remain to be fully elucidated.

Author(s): 
Nada, Shadia E.
Tulsulkar, Jatin
Raghavan, Aparna
Hensley, Kenneth
Shah, Zahoor A.

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