Proanthocyanidins

Publication Title: 
Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy

Tannins are polyphenolic compounds of complex structures formed by secondary metabolism in several plants. These polyphenolic compounds have different applications, such as drugs, anti-corrosion agents, flocculants, and tanning agents. This study analyses six different type of polyphenolic extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with multivariate analysis.

Author(s): 
Grasel, Fábio dos Santos
Ferrão, Marco Flôres
Wolf, Carlos Rodolfo
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible neurobehavioural effects in rats of the proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF) isolated from the bark of Croton celtidifolius (Euphorbiaceae). METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were treated with the PRF (0.3-30 mg/kg) and evaluated in different behavioural paradigms classically used for the screening of drugs with psychoactive effects.

Author(s): 
Moreira, Eduardo L. G.
Rial, Daniel
Duarte, Filipe S.
de Carvalho, Cristiane Ribeiro
Horst, Heros
Pizzolatti, Moacir G.
Prediger, Rui D. S.
Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria
Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

In breast cancer, in situ estrogen production has been demonstrated to play a major role in promoting tumor growth. Aromatase is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgen substrates into estrogens. This enzyme is highly expressed in breast cancer tissue compared with normal breast tissue. A wine extract fraction was recently isolated from red wine that exhibited a potent inhibitory action on aromatase activity.

Author(s): 
Eng, Elizabeth T.
Ye, JingJing
Williams, Dudley
Phung, Sheryl
Moore, Roger E.
Young, Mary K.
Gruntmanis, Ugis
Braunstein, Glenn
Chen, Shiuan
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Urology

PURPOSE: Cranberry proanthocyanidins have been identified as possible inhibitors of Escherichia coli adherence to uroepithelial cells. However, little is known about the dose range of this effect. Furthermore, it has not been studied directly in the urogenital system. To address these issues we tested the effect of a cranberry powder and proanthocyanidin extract on adherence of a P-fimbriated uropathogenic E. coli isolate to 2 new urogenital model systems, namely primary cultured bladder epithelial cells and vaginal epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: E.

Author(s): 
Gupta, K.
Chou, M. Y.
Howell, A.
Wobbe, C.
Grady, R.
Stapleton, A. E.
Publication Title: 
Gender Medicine

BACKGROUND: The onset of menopause marks a pivotal time in which the incidence of hypertension and of cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins to increase dramatically in women. Before menopause, the incidences of these diseases are significantly lower in women than in age-matched men. After menopause, the rates of these diseases in women eventually approximate those in men. The loss of endogenous estrogen at menopause has been traditionally believed to be the primary factor involved in these changes.

Author(s): 
Carlson, Scott
Peng, Ning
Prasain, Jeevan K.
Wyss, J. Michael
Publication Title: 
Critical Reviews in Immunology

Many pharmaceutical drugs arc isolated from plants used in traditional medicines, and new plant-derived pharmaceutical drugs continue to be identified. Relevant to this review, different plant-derived agonists for gammadelta T cells are described that impart effector functions upon distinct subsets of these cells. Recently, plant tannins have been defined as one class of gammadelta T cell agonist and appear to preferentially activate the mucosal population. Mucosal gammadelta T cells function to modulate tissue immune responses and induce epithelium repair.

Author(s): 
Holderness, Jeff
Hedges, Jodi F.
Daughenbaugh, Katie
Kimmel, Emily
Graff, Jill
Freedman, Brett
Jutila, Mark A.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Polyphenolic extracts of the principal flavonoid classes present in cranberry were screened in vitro for cytotoxicity against solid tumor cells lines, identifying two fractions composed principally of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with potential anticancer activity. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of the proanthocyanidins (PACs) fractions indicated the presence of A-type PACs with 1-4 linkages containing between 2-8 epicatechin units with a maximum of 1 epigallocatechin unit.

Author(s): 
Singh, Ajay P.
Singh, Rakesh K.
Kim, Kyu Kwang
Satyan, K. S.
Nussbaum, Roger
Torres, Monica
Brard, Laurent
Vorsa, Nicholi
Publication Title: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Oxidative stress enhances pathological processes contributing to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, and dietary antioxidants may counteract these deleterious processes. Because rapid methods to evaluate and compare food products for antioxidant benefits are needed, a new assay based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed for the identification and quantitative analysis of antioxidants in complex natural product samples such as food extracts.

Author(s): 
Calderón, Angela I.
Wright, Brian J.
Hurst, W. Jeffrey
van Breemen, Richard B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Banisteriopsis caapi, a woody vine from the Amazonian basin, is popularly known as an ingredient of a sacred drink ayahuasca, widely used throughout the Amazon as a medicinal tea for healing and spiritual exploration. The usefulness of Banisteriopsis caapi has been established for alleviating symptoms of neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease.

Author(s): 
Wang, Yan-Hong
Samoylenko, Volodymyr
Tekwani, Babu L.
Khan, Ikhlas A.
Miller, Loren S.
Chaurasiya, Narayan D.
Rahman, Md Mostafizur
Tripathi, Lalit M.
Khan, Shabana I.
Joshi, Vaishali C.
Wigger, Frank T.
Muhammad, Ilias
Publication Title: 
Caries Research

Cranberry crude extracts, in various vehicles, have shown inhibitory effects on the formation of oral biofilms in vitro. The presence of proanthocyanidins (PAC) in cranberry extracts has been linked to biological activities against specific virulence attributes of Streptococcus mutans, e.g. the inhibition of glucosyltransferase (Gtf) activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of a highly purified and chemically defined cranberry PAC fraction on S.

Author(s): 
Koo, H.
Duarte, S.
Murata, R. M.
Scott-Anne, K.
Gregoire, S.
Watson, G. E.
Singh, A. P.
Vorsa, N.

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