Probability

Publication Title: 
Current Medical Research and Opinion

OBJECTIVE: This review addresses the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs), with an emphasis on factors that determine the potential for psychostimulant abuse. Strategies for identification and treatment of patients with ADHD who are at risk for, or have, co-morbid SUD are also addressed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The article was based on a qualitative review of current literature addressing co-morbid ADHD and SUD.

Author(s): 
Kollins, Scott H.
Publication Title: 
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a positive treatment effect of individualized homeopathic treatment for acute childhood diarrhea, but sample sizes were small and results were just at or near the level of statistical significance. Because all three studies followed the same basic study design, the combined data from these three studies were analyzed to obtain greater statistical power. METHODS: Three double blind clinical trials of diarrhea in 242 children ages 6 months to 5 years were analyzed as 1 group.

Author(s): 
Jacobs, Jennifer
Jonas, Wayne B.
Jiménez-Pérez, Margarita
Crothers, Dean
Publication Title: 
Archives of Internal Medicine

BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether federally funded complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research is translating into clinical practice. We sought to describe the awareness of CAM clinical trials, the ability to interpret research results, the acceptance of research evidence, and the predictors of trial awareness among US clinicians. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional mailed survey of 2400 practicing US acupuncturists, naturopaths, internists, and rheumatologists. RESULTS: A total of 1561 clinicians (65%) responded.

Author(s): 
Tilburt, Jon C.
Curlin, Farr A.
Kaptchuk, Ted J.
Clarridge, Brian
Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana
Emanuel, Ezekiel J.
Miller, Franklin G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the Neurological Sciences

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease which is caused by degeneration of motor neurons in the central nervous system. The incidence of ALS is higher in men than women, but the female advantage disappears with increased age. Here, we report evidence that the female advantage is due to the protective role of estrogen. In an ALS mouse model carrying the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (hSOD1) G93A transgene, ovariectomy did not alter the onset age of the disease while reducing the female lifespan by 7 days and making it comparable to that of the male transgenic mice.

Author(s): 
Choi, Chan-Il
Lee, Young-Don
Gwag, Byoung Joo
Cho, Sung Ig
Kim, Sung-Soo
Suh-Kim, Haeyoung
Publication Title: 
Developmental Science

Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such learning across the lifespan, between 4 and 85 years of age with an implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, and we found that the difference in implicitly learning high- vs.

Author(s): 
Janacsek, Karolina
Fiser, JÛzsef
Nemeth, Dezso
Publication Title: 
Psychiatric Research Reports
Author(s): 
Goldman, R.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Aging Research

The statistical characteristics of body weight in a number of longitudinally studied mouse populations were examined. Frequency distribution of body weights appears to be rather "fluid" (though within a strict range), changing from symmetric to positively skewed to symmetric and finally to negatively skewed as the mice pass through the stages of early maturity, middle age, and senescence. Because body weight is a highly integrated physiological variable, it is postulated that various diets which affect survivorship would affect body weight frequency distribution similarly.

Author(s): 
Economos, A. C.
Miquel, J.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology

The synapsin family of neuronal phosphoproteins is composed of three genes (SYN1, SYN2 and SYN3) with alternative splicing resulting in a number of variants with various levels of homology. These genes have been postulated to play significant roles in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and epilepsy. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, such as histone modifications in gene regulatory regions, have also been proposed to play a role in a number of psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

Author(s): 
Cruceanu, Cristiana
Alda, Martin
Nagy, Corina
Freemantle, Erika
Rouleau, Guy A.
Turecki, Gustavo
Publication Title: 
The Breast Journal

Breast cancer is a major health problem and concern of women religious in the USA. Although they have been identified as a high-risk population, only a limited number of breast health studies have been conducted. The purpose of this study was to explore breast-related health practices (breast self-examination [BSE], clinical breast examination [CBE], and mammography) of women religious residing in the United States. A survey design was used to collect a national sample. The probability sample consisted of 1,615 women religious between the ages of 24 and 99 (mean age = 64.5).

Author(s): 
Thiel, Linda
Publication Title: 
Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

Although the concept of investments in romantic relationships has featured prominently in close relationships research, there have been no empirical analyses of different types of investments and their possible differential predictive power regarding relationship state or fate. With data from five independent samples, the authors offer and examine investments that differ in terms of their timing (past vs. planned) and materiality (tangible vs. intangible).

Author(s): 
Goodfriend, Wind
Agnew, Christopher R.

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