Solar UV radiation, in particular its UVB component, is the primary cause of many adverse biological effects, the most damaging of which is skin cancer. Here, we assessed the photochemopreventive effect of delphinidin, a major anthocyanidin present in many pigmented fruits and vegetables, on UVB-mediated responses in human immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. We found that pretreatment of cells with delphinidin (1-20 microM for 24 hours) protected against UVB (15-30 mJ/cm2, 24 hours)-mediated (i) decrease in cell viability and (ii) induction of apoptosis.
Ductal morphogenesis of the mammary gland occurs largely in the early pubertal period under the influence of ovarian sex hormones. In this study we characterized developing ductal structures in breast tissue of 14 female prepubertal or early pubertal rhesus monkeys (average age, 2.6 +/- 0.1 years). Serum estradiol concentrations ranged from < 5.0 to 61.2 pg/ml, while progesterone concentrations were low in all animals (< 0.6 ng/ml). No corpora lutea were seen on ovarian histology.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the effect of Therapeutic Touch (TT) on the proliferation of normal human cells in culture compared to sham and no treatment. Several proliferation techniques were used to confirm the results, and the effect of multiple 10-minute TT treatments was studied. DESIGN: Fibroblasts, tendon cells (tenocytes), and bone cells (osteoblasts) were treated with TT, sham, or untreated for 2 weeks, and then assessed for [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into the DNA, and immunocytochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).
IL-12 deficiency has been shown to promote photocarcinogenesis in mice. As UVB-induced inflammation is an important tumor-promoting event in the development of skin tumors, we determined the effects of IL-12-deficiency on UVB-induced inflammatory responses in mice. For this purpose, IL-12-knockout (IL-12 KO) and their wild-type counterparts were subjected to a photocarcinogenesis protocol; skin and tumor samples were collected at the termination of the experiment, and analyzed for biomarkers of inflammation and their mediators.
Consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) in drinking water prevents photocarcinogenesis in mice; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Using IL-12p40 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type counterparts and an established photocarcinogenesis protocol, we found that although administration of GTPs (0.2%, w/v) in drinking water significantly reduced UVB-induced tumor development in wild-type mice, this treatment had a nonsignificant effect in IL-12-KO mice.
Interleukin-12 (IL-12)-deficiency promotes photocarcinogenesis in mice; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation resulted in enhancement of the levels of cell survival kinases, such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt (Ser(473)), p-ERK1/2, and p-p38 in the skin of IL-12p40 knockout (IL-12 KO) mice compared with the skin of wild-type mice. UV-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)/p65 in the skin of IL-12 KO mice was also more prominent.
Chemopreventive effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE) against intestinal/colon cancer development are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated GSE efficacy against intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(min/+) mice. Female APC(min/+) mice were fed control or 0.5% GSE (wt/wt) mixed AIN-76A diet for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, GSE feeding decreased the total number of intestinal polyps by 40%. The decrease in polyp formation in the small intestine was 42%, which was mostly in its middle (51%) and distal (49%) portions compared with the proximal one.
Pomegranate from the plant Punica granatum L. possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, we have demonstrated that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes with pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibited UVB-mediated activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases pathways. Here, we evaluated the effect of PFE on early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis employing SKH-1 hairless mice. PFE was provided in drinking water (0.2%, wt/vol) to SKH-1 hairless mice for 14 days before a single UVB (180 mJ cm(-2)) irradiation.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) have emerged as two effective clinical targets for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, we found that delphinidin, an anthocyanidin, present in pigmented fruits and vegetables, is a potent inhibitor of both EGFR and VEGFR2 in NSCLC cells that overexpress EGFR/VEGFR2. Using these cells, we next determined the effects of delphinidin on cell growth and apoptosis in vitro and on tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo.
We investigated whether serum from normal weight women is less mitogenic and more apoptotic than sera from the same women in the overweight state. Sera from premenopausal women, age (mean ± SEE) 34.6 ± 0.53 years, who were randomized to caloric restriction (CR) (n = 13), CR + aerobic exercise (AE) (n = 14), or CR + resistance training (RT) (n = 20) were used to culture endometrial cancer cells.