Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst is a renowned plant in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The present study seeks to identify the anti-inflammatory activity of two fractions from the methanolic extract of Bacopa, viz. the triterpenoid and bacoside-enriched fractions. The ability of these two fractions to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 was tested using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peritoneal exudate cells in vitro.
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
In the present study, we examined whether NF-kappaB activation is required for cardiac hypertrophy in vivo. Cardiac hypertrophy in rats was induced by aortic banding for 1, 3, and 5 days and 1-6 wk, and age-matched sham-operated rats served as controls. In a separate group of rats, an IkappaB-alpha dominant negative mutant (IkappaB-alphaM), a superrepressor of NF-kappaB activation, or pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC), an antioxidant that can inhibit NF-kappaB activation, was administered to aortic-banded rats for 3 wk.
Chronic neutrophilic inflammation is a manifestation of a variety of lung diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF). There is increasing evidence that fragments of extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen and elastin, play an important role in inflammatory cell recruitment to the lung in animal models of airway inflammation. Unfortunately, the association of these peptides with human disease and the identification of therapeutic targets directed toward these inflammatory pathways have remained elusive.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-9 play several roles in inflammation, including degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and regulation of cytokine activity. To determine the roles of MMP-8 and MMP-9 in a neutrophil-dependent inflammatory response, we used a murine model of corneal inflammation in which LPS is injected into the corneal stroma.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Disorders of water balance are among the most common and morbid of the electrolyte disturbances, and are reflected clinically as abnormalities in the serum sodium concentration. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel is postulated to comprise an element of the central tonicity-sensing mechanism in the mammalian hypothalamus, and is activated by hypotonic stress in vitro. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in the TRPV4 gene gives rise to a Pro-to-Ser substitution at residue 19.
Prolyl endopeptidase (PE), a protease that cleaves after proline residues in oligopeptides, is highly active in brain and degrades neuropeptides in vitro. We have recently demonstrated that PE, in concert with MMP's, can generate PGP (proline-glycine-proline), a novel, neutrophil chemoattractant, from collagen. In this study, we demonstrate that human peripheral blood neutrophils contain PE, which is constitutively active, and can generate PGP de novo from collagen after activation with LPS.
Leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H) is a proinflammatory enzyme that generates the inflammatory mediator leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)). LTA(4)H also possesses aminopeptidase activity with unknown substrate and physiological importance; we identified the neutrophil chemoattractant proline-glycine-proline (PGP) as this physiological substrate. PGP is a biomarker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is implicated in neutrophil persistence in the lung. In acute neutrophil-driven inflammation, PGP was degraded by LTA(4)H, which facilitated the resolution of inflammation.
Tauopathies are characterized by progressive neurodegeneration caused by intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein aggregates in the brain. The present study was designed to test whether a grape seed polyphenolic extract (GSPE) previously shown to inhibit tau protein aggregation in vitro could benefit tau-mediated neuropathology and behavior deficits in JNPL3 transgenic mice expressing a human tau protein containing the P301L mutation. Nine-month-old JNPL3 mice were treated with GSPE delivered through their drinking water for 6 months.
AIM: To investigate the anti-asthmatic mechanisms of the traditional Chinese medicine Pericarpium citri reticulatae (PCR). METHODS: The alkaloid section (AS) of PCR was extracted using an ion exchange resin, separated, and purified into different fractions by semi-preparative HPLC. These fractions were screened for beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) agonistic activity using rat beta(2)AR-transfected CHO-CRE-EGFP cells.