This study investigates the effects of Terminalia chebula Retz. meal supplementation on rumen fermentation and methane (CH4 ) production by using an in vitro gas technique. The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD) and the dietary treatments were T. chebula supplementation at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20?mg with 0.5?g of roughage and concentrate ratio at 60:40. The results revealed that cumulative gas production (96?h of incubation) were higher (P?<?0.01) with T. chebula supplementation at 12, 16 and 20?mg than other treatments.
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Centella asiatica (CA) is a common medicinal plant used in the ayurvedic system of medicine to treat various ailments and as a memory enhancer. Despite its extensive usage in children, data on its ability to modulate neuronal oxidative stress in prepubertal rodents are limited.
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences: Official Journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Traditionally Boswellia serrata extract is used in the Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In 2002 the EMEA designated Boswellia an orphan drug status for the treatment of peritumoral oedema. Pharmacokinetic studies yielded low plasma concentrations of the active ingredients 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (KBA) and 3-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA). In continuation of the tests investigating the factors limiting bioavailability of boswellic acids, the present study examined the permeability of KBA and AKBA in human Caco-2 cell lines.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms responsible for intestinal disposition of apigenin in the human Caco-2 cell culture model. The results indicated that most of the absorbed apigenin (10 microM) were conjugated and only a small fraction was transported intact. The amounts of conjugates excreted, especially that of the sulfate, were dependent on days-post-seeding. Apical efflux of apigenin sulfate did not change with concentration of apigenin (4 to 40 microM), whereas its basolateral efflux increased (p < 0.01) with concentration and plateaued at about 25 microM.
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
The precise cause of neuronal death in Huntington's disease (HD) is unknown. Although no single specific protein-protein interaction of mutant huntingtin has emerged as the pathologic trigger, transcriptional dysfunction may contribute to the neurodegeneration observed in HD. Pharmacological treatment using the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate to modulate transcription significantly extended survival in a dose-dependent manner, improved body weight and motor performance, and delayed the neuropathological sequelae in the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of HD.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of the loss of cognitive function among the elderly, and the aggregation and deposition of misfolded beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) contribute to this progressive central nervous system decline. Therefore, compounds that inhibit or even reverse Abeta aggregation might be useful for the treatment or prevention of Alzheimer's disease.
Estrogens produce biological effects by interacting with two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. Drugs that selectively target ERalpha or ERbeta might be safer for conditions that have been traditionally treated with non-selective estrogens. Several synthetic and natural ERbeta-selective compounds have been identified. One class of ERbeta-selective agonists is represented by ERB-041 (WAY-202041) which binds to ERbeta much greater than ERalpha.
A general approach for discovering novel catabolic metabolites from a parent biocompound was developed and validated on the metabolism of gamma-tocopherol in human A549 cell. The method is based on LC-MS analysis of in vitro stable isotope-labeled metabolites and assumes that a parent compound and its metabolites share a common functional group that can be derivatized by well-documented reagents.
Estrogen receptor (ER) subtype specific agonists, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) for ERβ and propylpyrazoletriol (PPT) for ERα, are pharmacological probes used frequently to define mechanisms for estrogen actions in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative analytical methodology was developed and validated for DPN and PPT, based on synthetic stable labeled analogs (DPN-d(4) and PPT-d(5)) using isotope dilution liquid chromatographic tandem electrospray mass spectrometric detection. The validated method produced high sensitivity, with detection limits of 0.04-0.07ng/ml serum.
Ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion, and flows to the duodenum in growing cattle fed differently produced canola protein supplements were studied in a 4 x 4 Latin square design using Speckle Park heifers (initial BW = 451 +/- 26 kg). Canola protein supplement treatments consisted of the following: 1) 8.78% regular canola meal (RCM); 2) 9.25% RCM plus 1.80% canola oil (RCMO); 3) 11.1% canola presscake from biodiesel oil extraction (CPC); and 4) 8.14% high ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) canola meal (RUCM) plus 1.32% canola oil (RUCMO).