The combination of propofol and alfentanil was administered to 20 patients for total intravenous anaesthesia during general surgery. The infusion rates for both drugs were controlled by microprocessors in order to institute constant blood levels adapted to the patients' varying needs. The mean blood level of propofol required for adequate hypnosis during anaesthesia was 2.42 micrograms/ml (SD 0.43). Awakening occurred 7.9 minutes (SD 3.4) after the end of the infusion, at a propofol blood level of 1.59 micrograms/ml (SD 0.34).
Propofol is a 2,6-diisopropylphenol with sedative-hypnotic properties. Because of its slight solubility in water, the drug is formulated as an emulsion for clinical use. It is highly lipophilic and distributes extensively in the body. The blood concentration-time profile of propofol after an iv bolus injection follows a three-compartment model with half-lives of 2-4 min, 30-45 min, and 3-63 h, respectively. Propofol is extensively metabolized by the liver prior to its elimination by the kidney.
We have studied interactions between i.v. propofol and midazolam for induction of anaesthesia in 200 unpremedicated female patients undergoing elective gynaecological surgery. Using end-points of "hypnosis" (loss of response to verbal command) and "anaesthesia" (loss of response to a 5-s transcutaneous tetanic stimulus), we determined dose-response curves for propofol and midazolam alone and in combination. For hypnosis, synergistic interaction was found (P less than 0.01), the combination having 1.44 times the potency of the individual agents.
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia = Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Spinal and epidural anaesthesia were compared in 65 patients undergoing hip arthroplasty, with regard to the degree of sensory and motor blockade, cardiovascular effects, operating conditions, the dose of propofol required to produce satisfactory hypnosis, and complications. Epidural anaesthesia was successful in 30 patients using an initial dose of 15 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine, and spinal anaesthesia in 32 patients, using 4 ml 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine. The two techniques were similar with regard to the level of sensory blockade (T8), degree of hypotension and perioperative haemorrhage.
We have examined interactions between midazolam, propofol and alfentanil using two end-points of light sedation (hypnosis) and anaesthesia. Quantal dose-response curves were determined in 400 female patients for the drugs individually and in combination. At the hypnotic end-point, interactions were analysed by fitting the data to a mathematical model where the response depended on the doses of the three drugs with additional terms included to describe non-additive interactions of the various combinations of the three drugs.
To evaluate the concentration-effect relationships of propofol during recovery after total intravenous anesthesia, 20 female patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery were studied. In 10 patients (Group B) the propofol infusion was supplemented with an epidural block with bupivacaine to evaluate the relation between the blood concentration of propofol and various pharmacodynamic end-points. The remaining 10 patients (Group A) received an alfentanil infusion intravenously instead of the epidural block to assess the dynamic interactions of alfentanil and propofol.
As yet no single intravenous anaesthetic drug can effectively and safely provide hypnosis, analgesia and amnesia. Thus intelligent combinations of hypnotics and opioids are necessary, especially for total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA). Inescapable interactions occur, most of which are synergistic and should be evaluated for the optimal care of the patient. This synergism varies considerably according to the different drugs, the different endpoints of anaesthesia and the differently combined dosage of both agents.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of propofol in combination with epidural anesthesia or with intravenous (i.v.) alfentanil infusion, and to investigate the clinical feasibility of this anesthetic technique in lower abdominal surgery. DESIGN: Randomized, open clinical study. SETTING: Operating theaters and postanesthesia recovery unit at the department of gynecology of a university medical center. PATIENTS: 20 healthy, consenting ASA physical status I and II adult female patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. INTERVENTIONS: A total i.v.
The influence of methohexital and propofol on seizure activity and recovery profiles was assessed in a randomized, crossover study involving 13 adult outpatients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and electroencephalogram (EEG) activity were monitored during the ECT procedure. After premedication with glycopyrrolate, 0.2 mg intravenously (i.v.), and labetalol 20-30 mg i.v. hypnosis was induced with a bolus injection of either methohexital or propofol, 0.75 mg/kg.