Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases

Publication Title: 
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management

The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recently provided an update to the guidelines published in 1995 on the management of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip. Members of the Ad Hoc Committee on OA Guidelines followed an evidence-based medicine approach to revise the guidelines by reviewing an extensive literature search of the Cochrane and Medline databases and published abstracts, and discussing evidence with expert rheumatologists.

Author(s): 
Schnitzer, Thomas J.
American College of Rheumatology
Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Nutrition
Author(s): 
Emken, E. A.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Ethanol is proposed to exert its pharmacological effects by increasing membrane fluidity. Support for this hypothesis comes from strong correlations between in vitro effects of ethanol and pharmacological effects and genetic variation seen in vivo. Because arachidonate acid (AA) cascade is a membrane-bound system activated by disruptions in the cell membrane, it is possible that ethanol-induced membrane fluidization increases the formation of AA metabolites such as prostaglandins.

Author(s): 
Elmer, G. I.
George, F. R.
Publication Title: 
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology

The present study was aimed to establish the efficacy of Jeevaneeya Rasayana (JR), an ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, in adjuvant-induced arthritic (AIA) rat model with reference to mediators of inflammation. The methanolic (MJR), ethanolic (EJR), and water extracts (WJR) of JR were prepared and their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced acute model was evaluated. MJR at a dose of 25 mg/kg showed significantly higher anti-inflammatory effect than EJR, WJR, and standard drug diclofenac. MJR also significantly decreased the paw edema in AIA rats.

Author(s): 
Shyni, G. L.
Ratheesh, M.
Sindhu, G.
Helen, A.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst is an Ayurvedic herb with antirheumatic potential. This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of Bacopa monniera in treating rheumatoid arthritis using a type II collagen-induced arthritis rat model. Arthritis was induced in male Wistar rats by immunization with bovine type II collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant. Bacopa monniera extract (BME) was administered after the development of arthritis from day 14 onwards. The total duration of experiment was 60 days.

Author(s): 
Viji, V.
Kavitha, S. K.
Helen, A.
Publication Title: 
Neurochemical Research

Sida cordifolia is a plant belonging to the Malvaceae family used in many ayurvedic preparations. This study aimed at assessing the effects of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia root on quinolinic acid (QUIN) induced neurotoxicity and to compare its effect with the standard drug deprenyl in rat brain.

Author(s): 
Swathy, S. S.
Panicker, Seema
Nithya, R. S.
Anuja, M. M.
Rejitha, S.
Indira, M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

Glucosamine represents one of the most commonly used drugs to treat osteoarthritis. However, mechanisms of its antiarthritic activities are still poorly understood. The present study identifies a novel mechanism of glucosamine-mediated anti-inflammatory activity. It is shown that both glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine inhibit IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-induced NO production in normal human articular chondrocytes.

Author(s): 
Shikhman, A. R.
Kuhn, K.
Alaaeddine, N.
Lotz, M.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

Scutellaria baicalensis is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine that has been used historically in anti-inflammatory and anticancer therapy. The purpose of this study is to verify its anticancer activity on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in vitro and in vivo and to investigate its effect on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and is highly expressed in HNSCC.

Author(s): 
Zhang, David Y.
Wu, Josephine
Ye, Fei
Xue, Li
Jiang, Shiquan
Yi, Jizu
Zhang, Wandi
Wei, Huachen
Sung, Max
Wang, Wayne
Li, Xiaoping
Publication Title: 
Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society

OBJECTIVES: Physical therapies are commonly used for limiting joint inflammation. To gain insight into their mechanisms of actions for optimal usage, we examined persistence of mechanical signals generated by cyclic tensile strain (CTS) in chondrocytes, in vitro. We hypothesized that mechanical signals induce anti-inflammatory and anabolic responses that are sustained over extended periods. METHODS: Articular chondrocytes obtained from rats were subjected to CTS for various time intervals followed by a period of rest, in the presence of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta).

Author(s): 
Madhavan, S.
Anghelina, M.
Rath-Deschner, B.
Wypasek, E.
John, A.
Deschner, J.
Piesco, N.
Agarwal, S.
Publication Title: 
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines: AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines

Chantaleela recipe is indicated for relieving fever in Thai traditional folk medicine. In the present study, Chantaleela recipe was investigated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-ulcerogenic activities. In preliminary investigation Chantaleela recipe was found to exert an inhibitory activity on the acute phase of inflammation as seen in ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema as well as in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. The results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of Chantaleela recipe may be due to an inhibition via cyclooxygenase pathway.

Author(s): 
Sireeratawong, Seewaboon
Khonsung, Parirat
Piyabhan, Pritsana
Nanna, Urarat
Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas
Jaijoy, Kanjana
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