The third stage of labor usually is eclipsed by the excitement of the birth of a baby. Evidence shows that management of this stage can directly influence important maternal outcomes such as blood loss, need for manual removal of the placenta, and postpartum hemorrhage. Most of the large trials have compared active management of the third stage to expectant management. Active management includes routine use of cord traction and uterotonins, whereas expectant management can be characterized as one of watchful waiting.
BACKGROUND: Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) at term is managed expectantly or by planned early birth. It is not clear if waiting for birth to occur spontaneously is better than intervening, e.g. by inducing labour. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to assess the effects of planned early birth (immediate intervention or intervention within 24 hours) when compared with expectant management (no planned intervention within 24 hours) for women with term PROM on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes.
We present an overview of the prostaglandin (PG) pathway as a novel target for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) using a combination of calcitriol and genistein, both of which have known antiproliferative properties. Calcitriol inhibits the PG pathway in PCa cells in 3 separate ways: by decreasing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, stimulating 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) expression, and decreasing EP (PGE2) and FP (PGF(2alpha)) receptors.
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Glucose-mediated oxidative stress and the upregulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway activity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several vascular complications of diabetes including diabetic neuropathy. However, in nondiabetic subjects, the cardiovascular safety of selective COX-2 inhibition is controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the links between hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, activation of the COX-2 pathway, cardiac sympathetic integrity, and the development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in experimental diabetes.
Prematurely born infants are often treated with supraphysiologic amounts of oxygen, which is associated with lung injury and the development of diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Complimentary responses between the lung and liver during the course of hyperoxic lung injury have been studied in adult animals, but little is known about this relationship in neonates. These studies tested the hypothesis that oxidant stress occurs in the livers of newborn mice in response to continuous hyperoxia exposure.
Targeting cancer stem cells is of paramount importance in successfully preventing cancer relapse. Recently, in silico screening of public gene-expression datasets identified cyclooxygenase-derived cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPGs) as likely agents to target malignant stem cells. We show here that Δ(12)-PGJ(3), a novel and naturally produced CyPG from the dietary fish-oil ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5) alleviates the development of leukemia in 2 well-studied murine models of leukemia.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry: International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Exacerbation of innate immune responses can contribute to development of acute lung injury. Multiple cell populations, including the bronchiolar epithelium, coordinate these inflammatory responses. Clara cells, non-ciliated epithelial cells, are located in the distal airways in humans and conducting airways in mice. These cells actively participate in innate immune responses but their precise contributions remain poorly defined. METHODS: To test the hypothesis that E.
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Chronic inflammation has been linked to cancer. Prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) is the most pro-inflammatory lipid and one of the downstream products of 2 isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy and mainly occurs in older women. The factors that contribute to the correlation of age and ovarian cancer are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of COX enzymes and PGE₂ levels in ovaries and correlate them to ovarian cancer and aging.
Following oxygenation of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase to form prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a variety of prostanoids can be generated with diverse physiologic effects on pain, inflammation, allergy, cardiovascular system, cancer, etc. To facilitate the quantitative analysis of prostanoids in human serum of cell culture, an ultra-high pressure LC (UHPLC)/MS/MS method was developed and validated for the measurement of six eicosanoids belonging to the cyclooxygenase pathway: PGE2, PGD2, 8-iso-PGF2alpha, PGF2alpha, 6-keto-PGF1alpha, and thromboxane B2 (TXB2).