THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Activation of Rho-kinase 2 (ROCK-II) results in contraction of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and ROCK-II inhibitors relax corpus cavernosum in vitro and in vivo hence, plant extracts capable of inhibiting ROCK-II enzyme may be useful in management of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of the study was to screen selected Indian medicinal plants, having similar ethnopharmacological use for ROCK-II inhibition.
The premature ageing ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and Werner syndromes (WS) are associated with accelerated cellular ageing. Young WS fibroblasts have an aged appearance and activated p38 MAP kinase, and treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB230580 extends their lifespan to within the normal range. SB203580 also extends the replicative lifespan of normal adult dermal fibroblasts, however, the effect is much reduced when compared to WS cells, suggesting that WS fibroblasts undergo a form of stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS).
Terminally differentiated neutrophils are short-lived but the key effector cells of the innate immune response, and have a prominent role in the pathogenesis and propagation of many inflammatory diseases. Delayed apoptosis, which is responsible for their extended longevity, is critically dependent on a balance of intracellular survival versus pro-apoptotic proteins. Here, we elucidate the mechanism by which the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor drugs such as R-roscovitine and DRB (5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole) mediate neutrophil apoptosis.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive paralysis due to motor neuron death. Several lines of published evidence suggested that inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling might protect neurons from degeneration. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we treated the SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS with erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor clinically approved for oncology indications.
Protein kinase signaling cascades control most aspects of cellular function. The ATP binding domains of signaling protein kinases are the targets of most available inhibitors. These domains are highly conserved from mammals to flies. Herein we describe screening of a library of small molecule inhibitors of protein kinases for their ability to increase Drosophila lifespan. We developed an assay system which allowed screening using the small amounts of materials normally present in commercial chemical libraries.
Inhibition of cancer-promoting kinases is an established therapeutic strategy for the treatment of many cancers, although resistance to kinase inhibitors is common. One way to overcome resistance is to target orthogonal cancer-promoting pathways. Bromo and Extra-Terminal (BET) domain proteins, which belong to the family of epigenetic readers, have recently emerged as promising therapeutic targets in multiple cancers.
The C-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 is widely used to inhibit the JNK-mediated Bax activation and cell apoptosis. However, this report demonstrates that SP600125 synergistically enhances the dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced human lung adenocarcinoma cell apoptosis by accelerating Bax translocation and subsequent intrinsic apoptotic pathway involving mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation.
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening.
Our previous studies have shown that z-guggulsterone, a constituent of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer cells by causing apoptosis. We now report a novel response to z-guggulsterone involving the inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. The z-guggulsterone treatment inhibited capillary-like tube formation (in vitro neovascularization) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and migration by HUVEC and DU145 human prostate cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.
Chemoprevention of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), a disease associated with high mortality rates and frequent occurrence of second primary tumor (SPT), is an important clinical goal. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 signaling pathway is known to play a key role in HNSCC growth, survival, and prognosis, thereby serving as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of HNSCC.